(this section is under construction)
THIS episode of the "Spalding Saga" xxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx x xxxxxxx
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xxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx x x xxxxxxxx xxxx x x xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xxxx x x xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxx xx x x xxxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xx xxx xxxx x x xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xx xx xx xxxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx x x xxxx
(this section is under construction)
xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx x xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx x xxxxxx xxxx xxx x xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x xxx
Document 1: 1949 Virginia E. Luckhardt's comments (excerpts)
Source: Luckhardt, Virginia E., "Notable Printers of Early Pittsburgh..." PA, 1949.
Note 1: Although this unpublished thesis has never been copyrighted, only limited extracts are presented below. Complete copies may be viewed at the Pittsburgh Carnegie Library.
Note 2: Luckhardt is one of the few sources who document Robert Patterson, Sr's. early years in the Conneaut Creek region of northwestern PA. Among the Erie Co., PA Presbyterian congregations served by Robert Patterson, Sr. as a young man was the one centered in East Springfield, about 8 miles east of the later (1809-1812) home of Solomon Spalding (across the state line in New Salem, OH). John N. Miller (one of the 8 Conneut witnesses for the Spalding authorship claims) was an early member of the Presbyterian church founded by Robert Patterson, Sr. in Springfield Twp.
Note 3: The Pittsburgh book-selling business Patterson conducted in partnership with John Hopkins lasted from 1810 until it was dissolved on Nov. 5, 1812. Generally speaking, the efforts of this original company were continued thenceforth, until the end of 1817, under the new firm of Robert & Joseph Patterson. While this company mostly sold books and stationery and supplied local print-shops with paper, the two brothers also conducted some small-scale publishing, perhaps mostly using the press owned by Silas Engles. If Robert Patterson ever managed the operation of his own printing press, it must have been during 1813-1817 -- the very time that Solomon Spalding was in the Pittsburgh area, attempting to have his writings published.
Note 4: On Jan. 1, 1818 the Patterson brother's company went into bankruptcy and its printing assets were placed in the hands the recently formed Butler & Lambdin company. J. Harrison Lambdin, a partner in that printing business, was also a partner of Robert Patterson, Sr. in the newly organized publishing firm of Patterson & Lambdin, a venture which lasted until Jan. 1, 1823 when it too went into bankruptcy. It is likely that Lambdin furnished a good deal of the capital and energy for this third effort by Patterson to get into the publishing trade. Patterson & Lambdin printed numerous books on the press of Butler & Lambdin, and were major publishers in Pittsburgh.
Document 2: 1884 misc. historical sketches (excerpts)
Source: History of Erie County, Pennsylvania... IL, 1884.
Notes: Robert Patterson, Sr. left his duties as a Presbyterian minister in North East township and East Springfield in April of 1807, two years before Solomon Spalding settled about 8 miles west of there (in 1809, across the state line in New Salem, OH). In 1806 the Springfield church was formally organized by Rev. Johnston Eaton (1805-1847), who became its pastor in 1808. Eaton and Patterson both married into the family of Colonel John Canon, the founder of Cannonsburg, PA. Patterson married John's daughter, Jean [Jane], and Eaton married John's neice, Eliza. Eaton remained as pastor of the Springfield church until Nov. 1814; he thus overlapped the stay of Solomon Spalding in that region by about four years. Rev. Eaton almost certainly was an acquaintance (and perhaps a good friend) of Solomon Spalding.
John Rudd, Sr. and his family moved to the NE corner of Springfield twp. Erie Co., PA in 1805, after purchasing land from Solomon Spalding in Otsego Co., NY. Lyman Jackson, Sr. and his family moved to the neighboring Erie Co. township of Conneaut in 1806 (some accounts say 1805), also after having purchased land from Spalding in Otsego Co. The Rudd and Jackson families were related: John's son John Jr. married Lyman's daughter Rosanna in about 1801, probably in Richfield, Otsego, NY. If Spalding made a 1805 visit to Erie Co., PA and what later became Ashtabula Co., OH, he may have traveled with the Rudds or the Jacksons on their pioneer journey westward.
Document 3: 1868 Samuel J. M. Eaton's comments (excerpts)
Source: Eaton, S. J. M. (1820-1889) History of the Presbytery of Erie... NY, 1868.
Notes: The excerpt from a journal of Robert Patterson, Sr. provided below is from Nov. 1803, and thus was written several years prior to his return to Pittsburgh and well before the arrival of Solomon Spalding in the Conneaut Creek area. While the excerpt mentions Patterson's having visited people along the Conneaut Creek valley and watershed, it says nothing about his later activities in East Springfield, where be conducted occasional preaching services, beginning at about this same time (early in 1804). Since Patterson remaiend in the area until about April of 1807, he presumably was one the scene when John Rudd, Sr. and his family arrived in Springfield in 1805.
While the brief biography of Robert Patterson, Sr. included here mentions his book-selling business in Pittsburgh (Patterson & Hopkins, R. & J. Patterson, etc.), it fails to mention that Patterson also maintained a financial interest in various book-publishing ventures in that city, conducted in association with printers Butler & Lambdin and Silas Engles.
NOTABLE PRINTERS OF EARLY PITTSBURGH By Virginia E. Luckhardt A study submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Library Science Pittsburgh Carnegie Library School 1949
Introduction . . . . . . . . . i
JOHN SCULL. . . . . . . . . . 01
ZADOK CRAMER. . . . . . . . . 11
JOHN D. ISRAEL. . . . . . . . 18
WILLIAM EICHBAUM, JR. . . . . 22
EPHRAIM PENTLAND. . . . . . . 27
ROBERT PATTERSON . . . . . . .32
SILAS ENGLES. . . . . . . . . 36
JOHN M. SNOWDEN . . . . . . . 40
SAMUEL REED JOHNSTON . . . . .43
Index of Printers . . . . . . 47
BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES . . . . . 48
1. Godcharles, F. A,, ed. Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania biography. v. 3. New York, Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1930. p. 784. 2. Loc. cit. 3. Starrett, A. L. Through one hundred and fifty years; the University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1937. p. 44. 4. Godcharles, F. A., ed. op. cit. p. 784. 5. Starrett, A. L., op. cit. p. 44. 6. Godcharles, F. A., ed. op. cit. p. 784. 7. Baldwin, L. D. Pittsburgh: the story of a city. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1937. p. 161. 8. Godcharles, F. A., ed. op. cit. p. 784. 9. Starrett, A. L., op. cit. p. 44. 10. Gazette. August 9, 1811. p. 3. col. 5. 11. Gazette. November 6, 1812. p. 3. col. 5. 12. Anderson, E. P. "The intellectual life of Pittsburgh, 1786- 1836, part 5: Literature." p. 110. (In Western Pennsyl- vania historical magazine. v. 14, p. 92-114. April 1931) 13. Godcharles, F. A., ed. op. cit. p. 784. 14. Starrett, A. L., op. cit. p. 44. 15. Gazette. January 13, 1816. p. 3. col. 1, 2; Nov. 15, 1815. 16. Gazette. January 28, 1814. p. 3. col. 1. 2. 17. Loc. cit. 18. Buck, S. J. and Buck, E. H. The planting of civilization in western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1939. p. 380. 19. Godcharles, F. A., ed. op. cit. p. 784.
1. Brigham, C. S. History and bibliography of American news- papers, 1690-1820. v. 1. Worcester, Massachusetts, American Antiquarian Society, 1947. p. 265. 2. Buck, S. J. and Buck, E. H. The planting of civilization in western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1939. p. 385. 3. Booth, R. E. "American periodicals 1800-1825," p. 162 (In Library Journal. v. 71, p. 156-63. Feb. 1, 1946) 4. Anderson, E. P. "The intellectual life of Pittsburgh, 1786- 1836, part 5: Literature." p. 111. (In Western Pennsyl- vania historical magazine. v. 14, p. 92-114. April 1931) 5. Field, A. G. "The press in western Pennsylvania to 1812." p. 236. (In Western Pennsylvania historical magazine. v. 20, p. 231-64. December 1937) 6. Gazette. November 15, 1811. p. 3. col. 5. 7. City directory. (Typewritten excerpt from R. & J. Patterson's Honest man's extra almanac. Pennsylvania room, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh) p. 2. 8. Gazette. October 28, 1815. p. 3. col. 1. 9. Gazette. November 4, 1815. p. 3. col. 2. 10. Gazette. December 2, 1815. p. 3. col. 4. 11. Gazette. March 30, 1816. p. 3. col. 4. 12. Brigham, C. S. op. cit. v. 2, p. 967. 13. Determined by checking imprints of the Statesman. 14. Brigham, C. S. op. cit. v. 2, p. 967. 15. Statesman. April 10, 1819. p. 3, col. 5. 16. Cramer's magazine almanak for , , , 1828. Pittsburgh, Cramer & Spear (1829) p. 72.
E R I E C O U N T Y,
P E N N S Y L V A N I A.
CONTAINING A HISTORY OF THE COUNTY; ITS TOWNSHIPS, TOWNS
VILLAGES, SCHOOLS, CHURCHES, INDUSTRIES, ETC.; PORTRAITS OF
EARLY SETTLERS AND PROMINENT MEN; BIOGRAPHIES;
HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA, STATISTICAL AND
MISCELLANEOUS MATTER, ETC., ETC.
I L L U S T R A T E D.
WARNER, BEERS & CO.,
The first known American citizens who located permanently within the bounds of Erie County were Thomas Rees and John Grubb, who reached Erie in the spring of 1795... Other settlers during 1795 were Rufus S. and George W. Reed . . . Jonathan Spaulding in Conneaut...
Most of the colonists were Presbyterians from New England and the valley of the Susquehanna, and it was no more than natural that that denomination should have been the first to look to the spiritual welfare of the promising settlement. In 1790, a tour that is somewhat celebrated in the annals of the church was made through this section by Revs. McCurdy and Stockton, two missionaries who were sent out by the Ohio and Redstone Presbyteries...
Rev. Robert Patterson, who had accepted a call from "The Churches of Upper and Lower Greenfield," was received by the Presbytery on the 30th of September, 1802. He returned to North East, and entered upon his pastoral work on the 31st of December, but was not ordained until September 1, 1803. The congregation were still without a building, and the ordination exercises were held in John McCord's bark house. Mr. Patterson's contract was to preach two-thirds of his time for the congregation, and the balance was spent by him in riding the country from place to place, holding services in the woods, barns, sheds and private houses. During these trips, he had numerous startling adventures, and suffered many privations. An effort was made to have him devote one-third of his time to Erie, but failed for want of an adequate subscription. A log church was built in North East in 1804, on the knool now occupied by the cemetary of that borough. Mr. Patterson preached at Springfield during that year and organized a preaching point there. The first church in the latter township was built in 1804 on the site of the cemetary at East Springfield. Mr. Patterson was unable to stand the fatigues of frontier duty, and in April, 1807, applied to the Presbytery for a release from his charge, which was granted...
The first knowledge we have of Episcopalians is through a paper, a copy of which has been preserved, drawn up in 1803, and signed by fourteen citizens, agreeing to contribute the sum of $83 annually "to pay one third of Rev. Mr. Patterson's time in Erie, until a Church of England clergyman can be placed." Mr. Patterson, it will be recollected, was the Presbyterian minister in charge at North East . . .
CITY OF ERIE
FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.
As early as 1802, at Presque Isle, or Erietown, as it was variously called, a Presbyterian congregation not then organized into a church sought ministerial services from the Presbytery of Erie, which had been organized the year before. In 1803, in connection with Upper and Lower Greenfield, it extended a call to Rev. Robert Patterson, although for some reason the call was not to have been prosecuted, or at least his services not secured...
NORTH EAST TOWNSHIP
... The Presbyterian society, the oldest religious organization in Erie County, was founded in 1801, as "The Church of Lower Greenfield,"... The first regular minister was Rev. Robert Patterson, who was ordained as pastor September 1, 1802. His pastoral relation was dissolved by his own request April 22, 1807...
The first settler in the township was Capt. Samuel Holliday, of Franklin County, who came on in 1796... In 1802, Isaac, Jesse, John D. and Thomas R. Miller, John Eaton and John Law, all of Franklin County, Henry Adams, of Massachusetts, John Hewitt, of Connecticut, and John Rudd, Jr.... in 1804, Samuel Rea. of Franklin County, and John Rudd, Sr., and family...
The churches of the township are Presbyterian, Methodist Episcopal and Christian at East Springfield... The first Presbyterian ediface was a small log structure which stood on the old portion of the cemetary grounds. A preaching post was established at Springfield in 1806, by Rev. Robert Patterson, of North East, who was then the only regularly settled minister in the country, and the building referred to was put up the same year. The congregation was organized in 1806, by Rev. J. Eaton, pastor of the church at Fairview, who assumed the same relation to the Springfield Church June 30, 1808. His relation with the Springfield Church continued until November 8, 1814. The original congregation consisted of about thirty members. Isaac Miller, James Blair and James Bruce were the first Elders...
THE FIRST SETTLERS
The first settler within the bounds of the township was Jonathan Spaulding, who reached there from New York in the year 1795... in 1806 Lyman Jackson, from Otsego County, N.Y.; in 1810, Michael Jackson, son of Lyman, who remained but a few months, returned to New York and came back five years later...
BOROUGH OF ALBION.
The borough of Albion occupies an elevated site at the junction of Jackson's Run with the East Branch, near the Elk Creek line . . . The first settlers at Albion were Thomas Alexander, Patrick Kennedy, William Paine, Ichabod Baker, and Lyman Jackson. Michael Jackson, son of Lyman, who built the first saw mill, did not become a permanent resident until 1815, although he spent a few months there five years earlier... Lyman Jackson taught the first school. The town was long known as Jackson's Cross Roads, and the post office name has been successively Jacksonville, Juliet and Albion.
ELK CREEK TOWNSHIP
ROADS AND STREAMS.
The East Branch of Conneaut Creek... rises in Crawford County, just across the line. It is joined by Frazier's Run at Wellsburg, by Crane Run near Cranesville, by Mormon Run at Thornton's dam, near Albion, and by Jackson Run within the the latter borough. Mormon Run received its name because used as a place of baptism by that sect, who were once quite numerous in the vicinity...
LYSANDER P. JACKSON,
farmer, P.O. Cherry Hill, was born in Elk Creek Township, Erie County, Penn., January 5, 1823, son of Lyman Jackson, [Jr.,] a native of Vermont, who came to Erie County in 1805, with his father, and settled in what is now known as Albion, but at that time called Jacksonville, after the grandfather of our subject. This grandfather was a soldier of the Revolution: he raised a family of thirteen children, ten boys and three girls; seven of the former were soldiers in the war of 1812, and their father at the same time; but one of these uncles is now living, Abner, residing near Wellsville, Ohio...
JOHN RUDD [Sr.]
(deceased), moved to Erie Co., Penn., in Aug., 1805, from Otsego Co., N.Y., with a large family, his son John having preceded him several years and commenced a distillery. He took up about 350 acres of land along the lake front, on the Moravian tract. John Rudd, Sr., died in 1830, aged eighty-two. His widow and her children becoming infatuated with the Mormon cause, about the year 1839 [sic] joined the sect and went West. Thus ended one of Erie's pioneer families.
PRESBYTERY OF ERIE;
EMBRACING IN ITS ANCIENT BOUNDARIES THE WHOLE
OF NORTHWESTERN PENNSYLVANIA AND
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF ALL ITS MINISTERS,
HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ITS CHURCHES.
S. J. M. EATON,
PASTOR OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, FRANKLIN, PA.
PUBLISHED BY HURD AND HOUGHTON,
450 BROOME STREET.
FROM THE ERECTION OF THE PRESBYTERY, TO THE
The Presbytery of Erie was erected by the Synod of Virginia, in 1801. It was the third Presbytery that was organized, west of the Alleghany Mountains. Redstone had been organized in 1781, and Ohio in 1798. The territory of these latter Presbyterians was large, and the way opening for the rapid spread of population; and material seemed abundant for a new Presbytery. Presbyterianism was aggressive as regarded the world and Satan, and its founders here were fully up to the times and to its spirit. So they desired a new Presbytery, that the new and promising field might be more readily occupied. There was probably another reason for its formation. The territory was within the bounds of the Synod of Virginia. The journey to meetings of Synod was laborious and burdensome. The Western members must cross the mountains and be exposed not only to fatigue but actual danger in accomplishing it. Besides, the great work of keeping the institutions of religion abreast with the extending settlement of the country could be best attended to by erecting a Synod upon the new territory. This could only be done by first erecting a third Presbytery.
(Pages 28-39 of this text are not yet transcribed)
40 PRESBYTERY OF ERIE.
one bed (that used by the man and his wife), and a bunk in the corner for three or four children. Mrs. McCurdy saw that her hostess was preparing the bed for the strangers, and said, 'I perceive that you are giving yourself unnecessary trouble for us. Is not that the bed which you and your husband occupy?' 'Yes,' was the reply. She said, 'Then sleep in it; all we ask is room in your house, and I will provide a bed for me and Mr. McCurdy; the floor will do for us.' The woman insisted that they should take the bed. 'Where will you sleep"' was the next question. 'O, somewhere here,' she replied. 'You shall not leave your bed for me' said Mrs. McCurdy;' my Master had not where to lay his head, and we have saddle-bags and blankets, and a house to shelter us.' By this time I found there was no room for me, so I went out to a stack where there was some straw, and made a nest under the side of it, where I slept comfortably.
"From thence they went to Lower Greenfield, now North East, and organized a church, and returned to our log meeting-house, and organized a church, and called it Middlebrook. Mr. McCurdy preached the sermon from these words, 'My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me.'"
At the second meeting of Presbytery, another licentiate was taken under its care. This was William Wood (10), a licentiate of the Presbytery of Ohio. At this meeting, John and Abraham Boyd were both ordained and installed, the former June 16, 1802, as pastor of Union and Slate Lick; the latter on the following day, as pastor of Bull Creek and Middlesex. All these churches are in what is now Armstrong County, Pa.
The ordination of John Boyd was the first act of that kind performed by the Presbytery. There is one feature
connected with these early ordinations that is worthy of our attention. They were always accompanied by "fasting," as well as prayer, and the imposition of the hands of the Presbytery.
At a pro re nata meeting of Presbytery held at Pittsburgh, September 30, 1802, Robert Patterson, a licentiate of the Presbytery of Ohio, was received under its care, and accepted calls from the churches of Erie, and Upper and Lower Greenfield.
The next meeting was at Plaingrove, November 2, 1802, when William Wood was ordained and installed as pastor of the churches of Plaingrove and Centre, in Mercer County, Pa.
At the meeting held at Rocky Spring, April 12, 1803, Alexander Cook (12), a licentiate of the Presbytery of Ohio, was received under the care of Presbytery. At the same time it was resolved to solicit from the General Assembly a donation of religious books, to be granted to such inhabitants as may not be able to supply themselves. This appeal was successful, and the Assembly granted them the following list of books: twenty Bibles, forty copies Doddridge's "Rise and Progress," thirty Janeway's "Token," eight "Russell's Sermons," eight Boston's "Crook in the Lot," and eight Willison's " Sacramental Meditations."
This grant was followed by the following order: --
"That the Treasurer take charge of the books, pay the carriage on them, and distribute as follows: the Bibles given gratis to such poor people as need them, the others to be divided equally amongst the ministers, and by them circulated amongst such people as need them, until they are called for by Presbytery." 1
Here we find cropping out the germs of many of the
1 Min. of Pres. vol. i. p. 15.
42 PRESBYTERY OF ERIE.
Boards that are now the glory and crown of the Church, missions to the Indians, missions at home, education and publication -- all are found in the bud and ready to be developed.
On the 13th of April, 1803, Presbytery received the first ordained minister into its bounds. This was Joseph Badger (11), the famous missionary from Connecticut. His life was one of romance, and yet one of sternest reality. Born and reared in poverty, struggling always with adversity and discouragements, he yet performed labor and achieved results, such as few men even of his day were able to accomplish. His famous journey from Connecticut to Ohio, during the depth of winter, with his four-horse team, sometimes on wheels and sometimes on runners, will long be remembered as one of the heroic labors that characterized the early settlements of the West. His wonderful versatility of genius, admirably adapted him to the peculiar work in which he was engaged. We was at home equally in his cabin, on horseback swimming the rivers, in the Indian wigwams preaching Christ, and in the depth of the forest, sleeping at the root of a tree, his head pillowed upon a stone like Jacob's, or hiding from beasts of prey in the tree-tops. He was a remarkable man, and lived to see fourscore and ten years.
As an instance of the demand for supplies, the following minute, made in 1803, is reproduced: "Fairview, Westfield, Poland, Warren (O.), Trumbull, Beula, Pymatuning, Conneautee, Outlet of Conneaut, Hilands Saltspring, Concord, Gravel Run, Middlebrook, Beavertown, Franklin, Titus's, Hugh McGirl's on Pithole, Andrews' on Brokenstraw, Jackson's on Conewango, Robert Miles', Major Gray's on French Creek, Mount Nebo, Sugar Creek, Smithfield, and Canfield (O.)." Here is
a region of country extending along Lake Erie for thirty miles, thence south to Beaver one hundred and thirty miles; and from Warren, Pa., on the east, to Warren and Canfield, Ohio, on the west, and embracing territory and points that are still, after the lapse of sixty-five years, considered as missionary ground. And at this time the whole force of the Presbytery consisted of but twelve ministers.
On the 22d of June, 1803, Alexander Cook was ordained and installed as pastor of the congregations of Slippery Rock and New Castle, formerly called Lower Neshannock. The former church was in what is now Beaver County, and the latter Lawrence County, Pa. On the same day Robert Johnston (14), a licentiate of the Presbytery of Ohio, was received under the care of Presbytery. On the 31st of August following, Robert Patterson was ordained and installed as pastor of the congregations of Upper and Lower Greenfield. These churches are now known, the former as Middlebrook and the latter North East. They are in Erie County, Pa., and at present in the New School connection..
Mr. Patterson was the first settled minister in Erie County. He took frequent missionary tours, in the region along the shore of Lake Erie. A brief journal, kept during one of these tours, will convey some idea of the character of the work: --
44 PRESBYTERY OF ERIE.
log chain; and a third a cutting knife. Besides these met several others on their return from a Saturday night's lodging in a tavern, after having attended at the office of a justice, whose custom it is to transact law business on Saturdays, and so late that those who are obliged to appear before him are under the necessity, some with and a few against their will, of staying all night in a place where drunkenness, profanity, and obscenity too frequently introduce the Sabbath.
hours after night, came to a watercourse, seen by snow-light, which was too broad and miry to cross. Prepared to pass the night as well as I could. All in a perspiration, my feet wet with walking and wading, for the place did not admit of riding, hungry and fatigued, I lay down on the slushy snow, somewhat afraid of wild beasts, but more of perishing with the chilling cold, though it did not freeze. About midnight the cold in my feet became excessive. Rose and walked for about an hour on a path which I made in the snow for the purpose. My feet were somewhat relieved from the cold. Lay down again and passed the night sometimes awake but mostly asleep.
46 PRESBYTERY OF ERIE.
"Nov. 22, Tuesday. Rode ten miles to Wilson Smith's, in Waterford, alias Le Boeuf.
This journal gives a mere sample of the every-day labors of these early missionaries. As a general thing the study and preparation were confined to the saddle and the brief tarrying at the log-cabins by the wayside, whilst the preaching was often of daily occurrence -- in the forest, in the dwelling-house, or wherever a few people could be assembled.
On the 19th day of October, 1803, Robert Johnston was ordained and installed as pastor of the congregations
(Pages 47 - 50 of this text are not yet transcribed.)
seemed disposed to cultivate friendly relations with them. A minute was passed advising the ministers to exchange professional services with them, and the people to commune with them in their churches, This grew out of the celebrated "Plan of Union" entered into between the General Assembly and the General Association of Connecticut in 1801 and 1802.
In April, 1805, John McPherrin (16) was received from the Presbytery of Redstone, and soon after became pastor of the congregations of Concord, Muddy Creek, and Harmony, in Butler County, Pa.
In October, 1806, Presbytery received Johnston Eaton (20), a licentiate of the Presbytery of Ohio, under its care, and on the following month ordained Benjamin Boyd, and installed him as pastor of the congregations of Trumbull, Beula, and Pymatuning. The first two of these congregations were in Ohio.
In April, 1807, Cyrus Biggs (18), a licentiate of the Presbytery of Ohio, was received under the care of Presbytery, and at the same meeting Robert Patterson was released from the charge of Upper and Lower Greenfield in Erie County, Pa. At this meeting also, James Boyd (21), the fourth of the Boyd brothers, was licensed to preach the gospel.
In July, 1807, Robert Lee (5) was dismissed, on the ground of ill health, from the pastoral charge of Rocky Spring and Amity.
About this time the matter of a division of Presbytery was first agitated. The minute recorded is in these words: "Presbytery agreed to petition the Synod at its next meeting to erect Rev. John McPherrin, Thomas E. Hughes, William Wick, James Satterfield, Robert Lee, John Boyd, Abraham Boyd, William Wood, Robert Johnston, Alexander Cook, and Nicholas
52 PRESBYTERY OF ERIE.
(Pages 52 - 232 of this text are not yet transcribed.)
On the 2d day of January, 1787, Mr. Cook was united in marriage to Miss Alizannah Adams, of Abingdon, Md. They had ten children, three only of whom arrived at years of maturity. Mrs. Cook died at Slippery Rock, Beaver County, Pa., June 6, 1805. Her death took place on a Fast Day, whilst her husband was at church. He was afterwards married to Miss Clark, of Beaver County, Pa.
In person Mr. Cook was rather below the medium height, compactly built, dark complexion, dark brown eyes, with a sedate expression of countenance, generally, yet with a vein of mirth, cropping out in times of relaxation. He had a good faculty of rendering himself agreeable to the young.
(13.) ROBERT PATTERSON.
Robert Patterson was the son of Rev. Joseph and Jane (Moak) Patterson. He was descended from a family illustrious for its patriotism, and what is better, for piety and zeal for the service of the Lord. The father of Robert Patterson was born in the north of Ireland, in the year 1752. His father, though but a lad at the time, was at the famous siege of Derry; and the sufferings to which the Patterson family were subjected in consequence of this siege, were most severe and distressing. This branch of the family emigrated from Scotland to Ireland, in consequence of the terrible persecutions, carried on by Claverhouse, under Charles II. The grandfather of Robert Patterson was the son of John, the founder of the Irish branch of the family. 1
1 Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit.
234 PRESBYTERY OF ERIE.
Rev. Joseph Patterson, the father of Robert, was licensed to preach the gospel in 1788. He was a most useful and laborious minister, and died at Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1832.
Robert Patterson, the subject of this sketch, was born at Stillwater, New York, on the 1st day of April, 1773, near the spot afterwards celebrated as the field of one of the most severely contested battles of the Revolution. Not long after his birth, his parents removed to Germantown, Pa. The battle of Germantown occurred during the sojourn of the family at that place, and Mr. Patterson, then in his fifth year, distinctly remembered many of its scenes. After a brief residence in York County, the family removed to the West, and took up their abode in Washington County, Pa.
In the spring of 1791, Robert Patterson commenced his academical studies at the Cannonsburg Academy, then just opened. He recited the first lesson that was heard in connection with that institution teacher and pupil seated under the shade of a tree, on the banks of the now classic Chartiers. After prosecuting his studies for three years in the Academy, he went east and entered the senior class of the University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in the fall of 1795. On his way to Philadelphia, the journey there being made on horseback, he met the forces sent out by the Government to quell the Whiskey Insurrection.
Mr. Patterson had a great thirst for knowledge. He was not content with his collegiate course, and so lingered in the halls of his Alma Mater after his graduation. He was employed for nearly five years as tutor in the University, at the same time prosecuting, still further, his studies in the languages and higher mathematics.
He returned to the residence of his father, who was then pastor of the Raccoon Church, in 1800, and on the 30th day of April, 1801, was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Ohio. His theological studies had been prosecuted in part with Rev. Ashbel Green, D. D., while he was connected with the University, and in part under the direction of Dr. McMillan.
The next year after his licensure, Mr. Patterson took a tour over the destitute region of what was afterward the territory of the Presbytery of Erie. He visited the shore of Lake Erie, preached at various places, and finally was encouraged to think of settling in the congregations of Erie and Upper and Lower Greenfield, These latter churches were afterwards known as Middlebrook and North East. Rev. Elisha McCurdy had preceded him here, and soon after Mr. Patterson's first visit, he, in company with Joseph Stockton (4), James Satterfield (6), and his own famous "praying elder," Philip Jackson, organized the churches of Upper Greenfield (Middlebrook) and Lower Greenfield (North East).
At a pro re nata meeting of the Presbytery of Erie, held at Pittsburgh, on the 30th of September, 1802, during the sessions of the Synod of Pittsburgh, Mr. Patterson was received under its care. At the same meeting calls were presented for his pastoral labors from the congregations of Erie and Upper and Lower Greenfield, of which he declared his acceptance. Acts iii. 19 was assigned him as the subject for a sermon as part of trials for ordination. At a meeting of Presbytery held at Lower Greenfield, or North East, on the 1st day of September, 1803, the congregation of Erie, having from some cause declined entering into the
236 PRESBYTERY OF ERIE.
arrangement, Mr. Patterson was ordained and installed as pastor of the congregations of Upper and Lower Greenfield. Here he labored faithfully and with the practice of much self-denial until the 22d day of April, 1807, when at his own request the pastoral relation was dissolved, During his labors in this field he resided at North East, and took frequent missionary tours up and down the Lake, and for a time preached a part of the time at a place called Portland. A wide-spreading fir-tree is still pointed out by an aged citizen of the neighborhood, as having been planted by Mr. Patterson's own hand.
In April, 1807, he accepted an invitation to take charge of the Pittsburgh Academy, now the Western University of Pennsylvania. During the three years he presided over this institution, he numbered among his pupils many who afterwards filled prominent public stations, and who often spoke in grateful terms of his care and faithfulness as an instructor.
In October, 1812, Mr. Patterson was dismissed from the Presbytery of Erie, to connect himself with the Presbytery of Redstone, From 1810 to 1836 he was engaged in secular business, book-selling, and at times the manufacture of paper, having been one of the proprietors of one of the first paper mills established in the West. This business was carried on extensively for nearly a quarter of a century, bringing him into extensive public notice, yet not always resulting in success. Indeed, he suffered many severe reverses, yet was always esteemed a man of most undoubted probity and honor.
During the greater portion of this time, he was stated supply of the Hilands Church, situated about seven miles from Pittsburgh, and in the bounds of the Presbytery
of Ohio. The people of this charge have often remembered his faithful ministrations; and the recollection of the relationship he had sustained to them, with its many pleasing associations, was a theme of grateful acknowledgment on his part, to the latest period of his life.
In 1840, Mr. Patterson removed to the country a short distance from Pittsburgh. The infirmities of age were now upon him, and he ceased to preach regularly, yet he was always ready, when physical strength would permit, to preach in neighboring churches when they were vacant. For many years increasing spirituality seemed to characterize his mind. The things unseen of the eye of sense absorbed his attention and filled his mind, as was obvious from his reading and conversation. Scarcely a friend or even a stranger paused for a moment at his door, without having their attention called to the things of religion. Rev. Richard Lea who knew him well, remarks that he did not remember a single conversation with him for many years, were the interview long or short, in which the subject of the soul's great interest had not been introduced. In the bosom of his own family, where he was ever the most tender of husbands, and the most affectionate of fathers, and in the enjoyment of that domestic intercourse which had for him a peculiar charm, his spirituality of character and heavenly-mindedness, shone forth with brightest lustre.
His last illness was brief. His disease was dysentery. It assumed an alarming character about a week preceding his departure. When all hope of recovery was precluded, his brother Joseph said to him, "You will soon he with that Jesus whom you have loved so long." He smiled a pleased assent. His brother then remarking
238 PRESBYTERY OF ERIE.
that "God showed the same mercy in breaking up as in building up a family," he replied that "We are too prone to regard only one of God's attributes -- his mercy; forgetting that he was infinite in them all -- his justice as well as his mercy." Other remarks showed that whilst tenderly mindful of those around, his thoughts were with that Saviour he was so soon to see.
On Sabbath afternoon he lapsed into a state of almost lethargy, which continued with little interruption until Tuesday evening, September 5, 1854, when without a quivering muscle, or a heaving sigh, he passed away from earth.
There are perhaps few to whom could be applied with greater propriety the words which were the last he ever read, when he led for the last time the devotions of his family, on the Wednesday preceding his decease: "For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself." Phil. iii. 20, 21.
In August, 1801, Mr. Patterson was united in marriage to Miss Jean, daughter of Col. John Canon, the proprietor of Cannonsburg. They had seven children, five daughters, and two sons.
The following paper from the pen of Rev. Richard Lea, will throw light upon his character:
"Rev. Robert Patterson, son of Joseph, was like his father in many respects: rather short and heavy, very lively and good natured. He was not a student, but a good scholar; long known in Pittsburgh as a bookseller, but preaching for twenty-five years, nearly every Sabbath,
in Hilands Church. He had labored previously in Erie County, Pa. He lived many years, in a hearty old age, after his resignation as pastor.
240 PRESBYTERY OF ERIE.
"His own sermons were all extempore, and very much taken up with the relative duties of husbands and wives, parents and children. He abounded in anecdotes, sure to speak of Jesus; often, with tears, of his mother.
(14.) ROBERT JOHNSTON.
There are many remarkable incidents connected with the life of this servant of God. His old age, his long period of active labor, and his success in winning souls to Christ, make his history interesting and instructive. There is an incident connected with his dawn of life that is worthy of record. "When he was an infant ...
Chronology of Robert Patterson, Sr. (1773-1854)
1791-93 First student at Cannonsburg Academy, Washington Co., PA
1794-95 Student University of Pennsylvania, (graduated fall, 1795)
1795-99 Employed as a tutor at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
1800-01 Studied divinity under his father, Racoon Church, Washington Co., PA Robert Patterson, Sr. had previously studied diviniy with Presbyterian teachers, the Rev. Ashbel Green, D. D. and the Rev. Dr. McMillan of Philadelphia.
1801 (April) Licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Ohio (in PA)
1801 (Aug.) Married Jean Canon, dau. of Col. John Canon, proprietor of Cannonsburg
1802-07 A licensed (later ordained) Presbyterian missionary pastor in Erie Co., PA He was received as a licensed pastor for the Presbytery of Ohio's mission in the Presbytery of Erie, on September 30, 1802.
1803 (Aug.) Ordained and installed as pastor of the congregations of Upper and Lower Greenfield, (now Middlebrook & North East Presbyterian churches) in Erie Co., PA
1807-10 Principal of Pittsburgh Academy; instructor along with John H. Hopkins, etc. Also served as pastor a pastor in Pittsburgh and later for Hilands Presbyterian Church, seven miles north of Pittsburgh, (1807?-54).
1810-12 Partner with John H. Hopkins in the bookselling firm of Patterson & Hopkins, located at the SE corner of Wood & 4th streets in Pittsburgh. This bookshop firm undertook some limited publishing ventures, probably using the printing press of Patterson's cousin, Silas Engles (a prominent PA printer. Patterson & Hopkins' last known publication was "The Honest Man's Almanack, for the Year 1813" (advertised for sale on Oct. 22, 1812)
1811-15 The printing firm of S. Engles & Co. printers, was located on Wood St., between 3d and 4th streets. This location placed it adjacent to the Pittsburgh bookselling firm of Patterson & Hopkins, as well as the successor business of R. &. J. Patterson.
1812-17 Robert was partner with his brother, Joseph Patterson, Jr. in the bookselling firm of R. &. J. Patterson. The partnership began on or before Nov. 5, 1812. It seems likely that Robert Patterson, Sr. operated as the firm's manager and that Joseph Patterson, Jr. was the financier of the partnership. It is possible that Joseph's role in the fime began to diminish a couple of years after its extablishment. He eventually moved away to Philadelphia and was evidently not especially close to Robert in later years.
1812 (Nov.) James Lambdin dies in Pittsburgh. His son Jonathan Harrison Lambdin becomes a ward of Robert Patterson, Sr. and begins to work in the R. &. J. Patterson bookstore. It is possible that the young J. Harrison Lambdin also occasionally worked for Silas Engles.
1812 (Dec.) A half-share of Oliver Evans' Pittsburgh Steam Mill was offered for sale. It is possible that the firm of R. & J. Patterson purchased a half-share in the mill's operation -- alternatively, the Patterson's may have contracted with some other mill owner, to begin producing paper in Pittsburgh. Both Evans' and the Pattersons' operations were advertised in the Pittsburgh "Mercury" of Dec. 24, 1812.
1814 (Feb.) The printing firm S. Engles & Co., Printers was dissolved. Evidently Engles then lost one or more business associates. He continued on as "Silas Engles, Printer."
1814 (summer) It is probable that sometime prior to the summer of 1814, the Pittsburgh firm of R. & J. Patterson obtained possession of a book bindary, or at least book binding equipment. In the Pittsburgh "Mercury" of Aug. 10, 1814, the Patterson brothers solicited "journeyman book binders" in conjunction with the Lexington, Ky. firm of Wm. Essex & Son. Robert P. Du Bois, a former employee of Robert and Joseph Patterson, recalled in 1882 that the Pattersons had under their "control" a "book-store on Fourth Street," as well as "a book-bindary," a "job-office" printing establishment "under the name of Butler & Lambdin" and "a steam paper-mill on the Allegheny (under the name of R. & J. Patterson)." Du Bois did not say WHEN the Pattersons acquired this "book-bindary," but perhaps it was in 1813-14. The Butler & Lambdin printing business was not established until 1817. Presumably it was an independent company that owned a press, but under contract to the Pattersons.
1814 (Nov.) From this time forward, the bookstore and publishing business in Pittsburgh, formerly called R. &. J. Patterson, was referred to as "R. Patterson, Bookseller" or as "R. Patterson, Bookseller & Stationer." This name change probably indicates a lessening commitment to the partnership by Joseph Patterson, Jr., who seems to have abandoned all connection with the Pittsburgh business during the fall of 1814.
1815 (Oct.) A fire broke out on east side of Wood street, between 3rd and 4th streets, in Pittsburgh.
1815 (Nov.) Following the Oct. 1815 fire, the firm of R. Patterson moved temporarily to the house of Thomas Baird, esq. on Fourth street, thirty yards from Wood street.
1815 (Dec.) R. Patterson's Wholesale & Retail Book and Stationery Store and paper warehouse was doing business in its new location on 4th street, near Wood street. The business continued operations "in Market and 4th Streets," until at least the end of 1816.
1815-19 Following the Oct. 1815 fire, the firm of Silas Engles, Printer, was temporarily relocated on Wood St. above Diamond Alley. Early in 1815 Engles moved to Liberty Street, "nearly opposite Fifth Street," where he remained in business for the next four years.
1818-23 Beginning about Jan. 1, 1818, Robert was partner with his former legal ward, J. Harrison Lambidn, in the firm of "R. Patterson & Lambdin, Booksellers & Stationers, Fourth street, Pittsburgh." Patterson advertised: "I intend retiring from an active concern in the business, it will of course devolve entirely on J. H. Lambdin, in whom I place the most unlimited confidence, his integrity being established by the test of seven years, during which he has transacted my business." However Patterson evidently remained involved in the management of the new partnership, at least to a small extent, until 1823.
1817 The printing firm of Butler & Lambdin was established in Pittsburgh, with John B. Butler as senior partner and J. Harrison Lambdin the junior partner. Butler & Lambdin did printing work for the publishing firm of R. Patterson, Bookseller & Stationer during 1817. From 1818 forward, Butler & Lambdin did printing work for the firm of R. Patterson & Lambdin.
1818 (spring?) James Reid Lambdin, brother of J. Harrison Lambdin, went to work in the book-store of Patterson and Lambdin, shortly after the retirement of Mr. Patterson.
1818 (May) J. Harrison Lambdin married Miss Rachael Wilbur of New Jersey
1819-27 The printing firm of Silas Engles, Printer, was located on Diamond Alley, behind the Court House
1823 It appears that Patterson & Lambdin took over "Towne's Manufactory" at the corner of 3rd and Wood Streets, and there continued the previous store's sales of paper wall hangings, manufactured with paper from the Patterson Steam Mill. The move to the new location was made, perhaps, early in 1823, just before Patterson & Lambdin broke up. John Towne was a business associate of James Reid Lambdin, and operated "a lottery and exchange office" at the corner of 3rd Street and Wood Street, within "Towne's Manufactory."
1823 (Feb.) "The partnership heretofore existing between Robert Patterson & Jonathan H. Lambdin, trading under the firm of R. Patterson & Lambdin is hereby dissolved."
1823 (Apr.) The firm of R. Patterson & Lambdin, having gone bankrupt, its assets were put into the receivership of M. B. Lowrie, Henry Holdship and Thomas Cooper, "The Assignees of R. Patterson & Lambdin." Among the properties sold in April was Patterson's steam paper mill. Since Lambdin dissolved the partnership with Patterson, it seems likely that the final weeks and months of the business were not amicable ones. James Reid Lambdin says in his "Journal": "my brother's [affairs in 1822] were becoming quite embarassing. Patterson & Lambdin, who were then largely engaged in the manufacture of paper... [suffered] loss without any insurance. This caused increased trouble in their pecuniary affairs."
1823-24 Apparently Robert Patterson, Sr. acted as Henry Holdship's agent in a store located near 4th and Market streets, while J. Harrison Lambdin was Holdship's agent at another store (or "stand") located at NW Third and Wood streets. If so, Lambdin labored in that capactity no more than a few months. On Jan. 20, 1824 Lambdin quit his job as Holdship's agent. Rev. Robert Patterson, Sr. seems to have continued as Holdship's agent, at least until early 1826. At some point in the late 1820s or early 1830s, Patterson took on Alex Ingram, Jr. as his partner in the books sales agency. Details regarding the Patterson & Ingram agency are unknown.
1825 (Aug.) J. Harrison Lambdin died at Pittsburgh.
1827 (July) Silas Engles died at Pittsburgh.
1839 (July ) "R. Patterson, Agent," and partner with Mr. A. Ingram, Jr., "disposed of his interest in the firm of Patterson & Ingram." This action apparently was Patterson's final retirement from the book sales business. Alex Ingram, Jr. was then publisher of the Pittsburgh Gazette.
1854 Robert Patterson, Sr. died near Pittsburgh
University of Texas of the Permian Basin Library
MARION on-line catalog system:
Patterson, Robert, 1773-1854
Source data found:
* Woodbridge, W.C. System of universal geography, 1833: cover (R. Patterson)
* The art of domestick happiness and other poems, 1817: t.p. (The Recluse, author of
The independency of the mind, affirmed)
* RLIN database, 10/11/91 (hdg.: Patterson, Robert, 1773-1854)
* PP files (Robert Patterson; bookseller in Pittsburgh, Pa.)
* Luckhardt, V.E. Notable printers of early Pittsburgh, 1949
(unpubl. thesis avail. online via the Spalding Studies Library as of 5.3.2002):
p. 32, etc. (Robert Patterson, 1775 [sic]-1854; b. Apr. 1, 1773; d. Sept. 5, 1854;
wrote under the pen name of "The Recluse")
* Buck, J.S. The planting of civilization in Western Pennsylvania, 1939: p. 381
("The Recluse," the Reverend Robert Patterson; in 1817, publ. under his pseud.
a book of collected poems; was principal of Pittsburgh Academy, 1807-1810,
proprietor of a bookstore and paper manufactory, 1810-1836
& preacher at Hilands Church)
Starrett, Agnes Lynch
"Through one hundred and fifty years: the University of Pittsburgh"
xvi, 581,  p. : incl. front. plates, ports., 2 facsim. ; 25 cm.
Pittsburgh : University of Pittsburgh press, 1937.
Subject(s): University of Pittsburgh -- History.