- Dale R. Broadhurst's  SPALDING  RESEARCH  PROJECT -

The Dale R. Broadhurst
"Spalding Papers"

Paper #01: A Proposal For a Comparative Study...



A Proposal

For a Comparative Study of the

Textual Affinities

in the

Solomon Spaulding Manuscript


The Book of Mormon

by: Dale R. Broadhurst

submitted to: Dr. Jeffery Holland
    Commissioner of the LDS
    Church Educational System

on: August 13, 1979


A Proposal

For a Comparative Study of the Textual Affinities
in the Solomon Spaulding Manuscript and The Book of Mormon


01  A. Abstract of the Proposal
03  B. Outline of the Proposal

06  A. Report on theResults of a Completed Model Study
10  B. Justification for a Comprehensive Study

13  A. Proposed Personnel
14  B. Proposed Budget
15  C. Proposed Primary Researcher

18  A. Spaulding MS, Preliminary Transcript (excerpt)
29  B. Spaulding MS, Concordance (excerpt)
52  C. Spaulding MS, Compared with Book of Mormon
69  D. Extracts from: A Preliminary List of Affinities
74  E. Textual Comparisons Bibliography



A Description of the Proposed Research

Abstract of the Proposal

The "Spaulding Issue" has been with the Restoration Movement since the Kirtland days of 1833 and has been the source or the primary support of countless efforts directed against the restoration. The publication of the long lost Spaulding Manuscript in 1885 brought a temporary lull to these efforts, as it had become obvious to all that the Book of Mormon was not a copy of that romance on the former inhabitants of America.

However, before long a number of investigators began to report what they felt were unusual parallels between the published manuscript and the Book of Mormon. Such reports added fuel to a new wave of efforts to connect the Nephite record with the writings of Solomon Spaulding. The most recent of these attempts was the subject of nation-wide news coverage in 1977.

It is proposed that a careful and comprehensive study of the two texts now be carried out so that once and for all a definitive statement can be made in regard to the nature, scope and magnitude of all textual parallels and affinities which occur in the two works. Initial efforts in this direction were recently completed in a model study of a portion of the Spaulding text. The unexpected findings resulting from that study clearly indicate that further inquiry into the matter now needs to be carried out by a responsible researcher.*

* See Appendices C & D attached to this proposal.


- 2 -

This writer will be engaged in graduate studies in the immediate vicinity of the repository of the Spaulding Manuscript for a period of two academic years beginning in October of this year. As I will be studying the pioneer history of the Kirtland area and also the scientific analysis and criticism of scriptural texts, I propose that I be supported by the Church in my continued research beyond the model study already completed.

Until a comprehensive study of the two texts is completed and its results compiled, the Church will not have a definitive basis from which to draw detailed information for confirmation or refutation of the claims of those who seek to make the text of the Book of Mormon dependent upon the pre-existing Spaulding romance. Such a study is now easily possible and should be given immediate and full support by the Church.

Dale R. Broadhurst
August 13, 1979


- 3 -



A Comparison of the Textual Affinities in the Solomon Spaulding Manuscript and the Book of Mormon.

No comprehensive listing of affinities between the Spaulding MS and the text for the original 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon presently exists.

Such a listing can now easily be constructed and analyzed. Such work can be based upon previous methods used in an already completed model study of the problem.

It is proposed that:

  • A new transcript of the text of the Spaulding MS be made. This product would be based upon the use of photocopies and the direct study of the original document at Oberlin College in Ohio. Such a transcript is needed due to gross errors in existing transcripts.

  • A concordance of the new transcript then be constructed.

  • A comprehensive catalog and cross-index of the textual affinities, parallels and common vocabulary in the MS and the Nephite record then be produced.

  • A report would then be generated giving an analysis of the nature, scope and magnitude of all such affinities and parallels. This report would be made available to selected authorities and responsible researchers in the field of modern scripture studies.


    - 4 -


    It is anticipated that all research and rough draft writing could be conducted by one primary researcher, given the assistance of a part-time research aide/secretary and the consultant resources available within the two major restoration churches.

    If Church editorial services were made available upon the completion of the rough draft, all writing and publication could be completed within ten months following the initiation of the project.

    Dale R. Broadhurst
    Project Cartographer, Utah Atlas Project
    Department of Geography, Weber State College
    Ogden, Utah, 84408

    note: My present obligation with the State of Utah ends on August 31, 1979. After that date address all correspondence to:

    Dale R. Broadhurst
    c/o Resident Hall
    Methodist Theological School in Ohio
    Delaware, Ohio, 43015


    - 5 -


    Methods to be Used in the Proposed Research

    A Condensed Report on a Model Study
    in the cataloging of textual affinities

    Conducted by Dale R. Broadhurst
    In April and July of 1979


    - 6 -

    Methods to be Used in the Proposed Research


    A model of the procedure to be followed in the proposed cataloging of the vocabulary and phraseology of the Spaulding MS has been formulated and already tested in two instances to date. In April of 1879 I transcribed and cataloged two pages of the Spaulding MS. The transcripts were matched against the text of the current LDS edition of the Book of Mormon and all commonalities were tabulated.

    Following this work I carried out a casual reading of the published editions of the Spaulding story and noted a great number of instances of commonality very similar to those which I had found in comparing the two transcribed pages with the Nephite record. This reading resulted in the construction of a list of textual parallels which, along with other material, was incorporated into a report sent in June of 1978 to the Historian's Office of the RLDS Church in Independence, Missouri.*

    In July of 1979 the model study was repeated using new photocopies of the MS obtained with the assistance of the Special Collections Department of the Harold B. Lee Library at B[righam] Y[oung] U[niversity], and an 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon. This second application of study methods proved very effective in the cataloging of all the major affinities occurring on the two MS pages transcribed. The steps followed are given below. The resulting transcripts and a portion of the lists appear as appendices to this proposal.

    * Broadhurst, Dale R. "A Preliminary List of Textual Affinities Between the Spaulding MS and the Book of Mormon," June 1979, unpublished report.

    - 7 -

    The Model Study Procedure

    1.  Two consecutive pages of the manuscript of the Spaulding story were selected for study. This selection was primarily made due to a complete short story being contained on these two pages. It was felt that such a short story might well be a representative sample of the vocabulary and structure of the greater text of the romance.

    2.  A true word-for-word transcript was made of the two MS pages from photocopies of the original.

    3.  A concordance of the said MS transcript was than constructed.

    4.  Each word in the MS concordance was then compared with the listings in an LDS concordance of the Book of Mormon.

    Those words which were identical or nearly identical in both texts were then typed up in their alphabetical order.

    5.  From the list developed in step 4 it was then ascertained which phrases, clauses and word groupings from Spaulding's sentences had some likelihood of occurrence in the Book of Mormon. These selections were than matched against the Book of Mormon concordance and an 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon and all parallel occurrences were listed.

    6.  Expected common parallel word groups such as "to be their" and other short groups of a similar nature were separated from the listing.

    An adjusted list of word groups common to both texts was then arranged in a worksheet concordance format, using one or more words from each group as index words.

    7.  All those instances of phrasing which appeared highly unlikely to occur in two unrelated texts were then investigated in depth, using he word group list, the Book of Mormon concordance and the 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon.

    Each such occurrence noted was read carefully in the context of the stories of both works. Further parallels were sought, such as previously unnoticed parallel words occurring at points separated from the main bodies of common phraseology.

    8.  Examples of two or more identified parallel word groups appearing in close conjunction in either text were carefully searched out and listed when found. Also, examples of very high word counts of common vocabulary

    - 8 -

    in the two works, which did not necessarily form into parallel word groups were noted.

    9.  When all such instances of greater textual commonality were noted, those instances with the largest or most "unusual" occurrences of affinities were once again carefully read in each work for possible commonalities of structure or theme. Where such occurred they were carefully noted and the greater body of text surrounding them was again searched for parallels in thought which might not necessarily be expressed in common wording.

    In this manner parallels in textual development which extended beyond the scope of the preliminary word lists were discovered and studied.

    10.  Finally, all major parallels of wording and/or thought were typed up in a comparative format with comments following each instance.

    Elements of textual study missing from the model study:

    1.  Grammar per se was not closely studied. Advanced grammatical analysis was decided to be beyond the present capabilities of the researcher and also a tool which should be applied at a later stage of investigation, after a greater body of vocabulary affinities have been listed.

    2.  Quantitative comparisons of word counts were not attempted. This type of analysis must await the cataloging of more than just two pages of the MS to have a statistical significance. When a representative sampling of the whole work has been completed (at least half of the chapters) then such statistical methods can be employed.

    3.  The commonalities were not consistently compared with other literary works known to have predated the texts and which have been suspected by some as possible influences on either the Rev. Mr. Spaulding or Joseph Smith, Jr. Again, it was felt that such study awaits the compilation of a greater body of common text from the two works.

    A few of the most unusual parallels were matched against a copy of Ethan Smith's View of the Hebrews. The same parallels were compared with the "King James" edition of the Bible containing the Apocrypha and a few interesting correlations were found. Such work was exploratory only.

    4.  Automatic data manipulation was not used. This is perhaps the most serious deficiency in the model study. Future work must use modern systems of data storage and retrieval. Funds were not available for the use of this tool in the model study.

    - 9 -

    Application of the Model to a Larger Study

    Only two pages of MS text were analyzed in the model study. In such a limited search the parallels found, however unusual or unexpected, are of very limited value in and of themselves. Only when they are compared to the larger patterns of word usage in the texts of both works can such parallels become useful in formulating conclusions as to why they exist. I was familiar with the content of the larger body of text for each of the two works and was able to formulate some working notions as to what types of affinities might be found in my search; but this kind of personal intuition cannot be relied upon for an in-depth analysis of the information already gathered or that suspected to exist. Interpretations await a comprehensive study of the two texts.

    The format of the model study can be applied to a larger study. The most reasonable format appears to be a comparison of the texts based upon the MS chapter breakdown. This approach would allow for adjustment and refinement of the procedure before an over-all comparison is attempted. The comparisons should be effected through the use of computer programs especially written for comparative literature analysis. This would allow the results of the chapter studies to be stored and integrated into the eventual comprehensive study.

    When such work has been finished, any larger more sweeping parallels in theme and structure can be established or ruled out once and for all. With the completion of quantitative analysis, the textual relationships (if any) between the Spaulding romance and The Book of Mormon would at last be put into a format which both the proponents and the opponents of the Spaulding Theory could study, extend or dissect in any manner desired.

    - 10 -

    Justification for the Proposed Comprehensive Study

    The model study discussed above was formulated as a small experiment to gather findings which would either indicate the possibility of a textual relationship between the Spaulding story and the Book of Mormon or indicate the improbability of such an internal relationship. Such a limited sampling was expected to produce only limited results. The discovery of a few minor correlations seemed possible but little was expected beyond that. Surprisingly, some patterns began to appear in the final stages of the study which were quite alarming. These patterns point toward the probability of there being much more than only superficial similarities in the two texts examined.

    A common story plot with a number of sequential parallels was found to exist both in the two pages examined and in certain portions of the Book of Mormon. The finding of such significant parallels in vocabulary and structure in the examination of only two pages of text in the MS called for further serious investigation.

    After a lengthy review of over 140 years accumulation of literature on the subject, I came away with the distinct feeling that my small discoveries might well be only a part in a greater pattern of parallels between the two texts. In a number of instances I found faulty reasoning or sloppy examinational methodology on the part of past writers on the subject, but in almost as many cases I found examples where previous investigators had "hit" upon instances of structural commonality which, when all added together, definitely call for an explanation. There is a real and a growing need to examine this whole issue from a new perspective.

    - 11 -

    The "anti-Mormon" writers of the past have used the Spaulding theory again and again as a basis for their attacks upon the restoration and there is little reason to believe that the motivation for such efforts has disappeared. Indeed, the recent (1977) efforts of some individuals to renew the Spaulding theory is probably only the beginning of a new wave of assault rather than the end. The thought of textual comparison as a tool in this effort has been raised by the same individuals who raised the handwriting issue recently.

    I do not emphasize this aspect as an area for possible embarrassment for the priesthood of the restoration churches or as a potential financial problem, but for another much more basic reason.

    The restoration movement is not built of meeting-houses, books, classrooms, temples, or theology, but of individual Saints who collectively form the body of Christ in these latter days. Some members of the body have talents, skills and resources in surplus but many others are still in positions of beginning growth and development; their testimony of Christ in their lives and of the reality of his restored gospel may be frail and their ability to withstand the assaults of the world may be weak. Others at a similar level of commitment on the outside of the movement may never come to the decision for baptism because of their faulty understanding of the nature of our modern scriptures. It is especially on the behalf of such Saints and potential Saints (and there have been times that I would have included myself in their midst) that I ask that the restoration leaders actively support efforts to study, comprehend and teach the true nature of the latter day scriptures. Such efforts should be begun anew in each generation, so that testimony building becomes a unique personal experience founded upon the events of contemporary life and not solely upon the fading assurances of past generations.

    - 12 -

    A continually growing comprehension and understanding of the true nature and the essential message of the Book of Mormon is critical for any body of Saints who plan to continue its use internally and to offer it externally to the increasingly sophisticated and skeptical secular society on the outside of the Church. If there is some previously undiscovered relationship between our Book of Mormon and other pre-existing literary works we should take the matter as a challenge and be- in the forefront of the investigation of the matter. Thus, I strongly feel that a new study of the nature of the text of the Nephite record, a study which would incorporate the methodology of comparative textual analysis, will be of inestimable value to those who would continue to support its message in the future which is ahead of us.

    - 13 -


    Proposed Personnel

    It is proposed that the direction, investigation and compilation in the project be centered in a single primary researcher. Ideally such a person should have an advanced education in the modern scriptures, restoration history, philology and literary criticism with a specialty in early 19th century manuscript fiction. As I know of no such individual, I instead suggest myself as an interested and highly motivated researcher who has already spent hundreds of hours in developing the basis for this project.

    Such an effort cannot be carried out by one person alone however, and the need for a part-time research aide/secretary will be understood by anyone who contemplates the scope of the project. It is proposed that this aide be paid as a direct temporary employee of the Church with whatever fringe benefits are appropriate for such a position.

    The need for a consultant philologist with some understanding of early 19th century American fiction is also primary. Such a consultant would assist in defining the details for textual investigation and would be available to assist in the analysis of the data gathered and compiled. It is suggested that the Church search its personnel resources for such a person who would be available on an "as needed" basis.

    Data processing personnel will also be needed on a continuing basis, especially for programming purposes. Such services could be solicited from a professional firm but the use of technicians from the business offices of the Church should also be considered.

    Note 2.: Pages 14-16 not transcribed.

    - 17 & 18 -



    The  [Oberlin]  Solomon  Spaulding  Manuscript

    Extract for MS pages 154 & 155

    from a

    Preliminary Transcript


    Note 3.: The following Appendices constitute the bulk of the final revision of this Proposal into "Working Paper No. 1" of my ten-part "Spaulding Research Project Working Papers." This set of papers was prepared between 1979 and 1981 in lieu of a thesis as part of my Master's studies at the Methodist Theological School in Ohio (Methesco Seminary). The 1980 preliminary revision of this Proposal reformatted the grant proposal pages proper into an appendix, while the appendices were re-written as chapters of the Working paper. This reformatting essentially switched the positions of the Proposal sections from front to back, dropping pages 14-16 in the process.

    In preparing this e-text reproduction of the 1979 Proposal I have generally followed the text of the 1980 revision, indicating the minor changes by enclosing them in square brackets. Although I have retained the pagination of the 1979 document an occasional few words have been transferred to a following page in order to match the 1980 layout. As pages 14-16 included information of a personal and financial nature they have been dropped from this e-text. At the beginning of each appendix in this e-text I have added explanatory notes in red type. By following this process I have hopefully produced a text which provides the essential material of the 1979 Proposal, while, at the same time, eliminates the need to digitize my 1980 Working Paper. Since the content of that paper overlapped the Proposal by 99% (and since only a single copy of the final revision of the paper was ever typed) I believe that this e-text comes reasonably close to reproducing the content of both the 1979 Proposal and the early revisions of my Working Paper No. 1.

    Dale R. Broadhurst
    November, 1998

    by: Dale R. Broadhurst
          August 13, 1979


    - 19 -

    The Solomon Spaulding Manuscript was first transcribed in the Spring of 1885 by Mr. L[ewis] L. Rice of Punahou, Hawaii. who then possessed the manuscript. In a letter to RLDS President Joseph Smith III, dated May 14, 1885, Mr. Rice stated: "...I have made a literal copy of the entire document -- errors of orthography, grammar, erasures, and all -- which I shall keep in my possession..." (letter printed in the Saints' Herald, July 11, 1885.) This Transcript was given by Mr. Rice to Joseph F. Smith, the second counselor to LDS President John Taylor. President Smith in turn sent the Rice transcript to the Deseret News in Salt Lake City for publication.

    The original manuscript was sent by Mr. Rice to Oberlin College in northern Ohio, where it was examined by RLDS Apostle William H. Kelley in July of 1885. At Kelley's request a transcript was made under the supervision of the President of Oberlin College. This transcript was used to prepare an excerpt of the romance which was published in the Saints' Herald, in the August 8, 1885 issue. This was the first publication of the work, though it had been briefly summarized earlier in the Deseret News. The entire story was published in booklet form by the RLDS Church later that year.

    The LDS Rice transcript was published in booklet form in 1886. Both the RLDS and the LDS editions of the Spaulding story were later reprinted by their respective publishers and have again been reprinted in recent years by [persons] outside of the two churches.

    A comparison of the RLDS and the LDS editions shows numerous differences between the two transcripts as printed. These differences can be attributed primarily to differing interpretations of the Spaulding handwriting and to differing reconstructions for gaps in the text cause by MS lacunae.

    - 20 -

    The 1885 RLDS edition title page

    A close examination of both the RLDS and the LDS printed transcripts also shows misprints and scribal errors to be evident in both publications. Although these discrepancies tend to be of little consequence in the great majority of cases, they are enough to render both printed editions unreliable for use by the serious student of the work. A new correct transcript is necessary before textual analysis can be undertaken on the Spaulding MS. The original is yet to be published in reproduction form, so the student of

    - 21 -

    The 1886 LDS edition title page

    the work must either work from photographs or journey to Ohio to obtain access to the actual manuscript. To alleviate the problem this writer has begun a new transcript of the MS based upon the study of photocopies of the original. In preparing this transcript I have consulted the two published editions but have not yet studied the original MS at Oberlin College. I expect to prepare a corrected copy at a later date.

    - 22 -

    In preparing the following transcript I have used the following textual signs: the parenthesis, the slash mark, the insertion mark, and numerical line indications. The latter are given in consecutive numbering beginning with 01 in each MS page transcribed. The parenthesis are used to enclose reconstructed text. Spaulding's original deletions are indicated by slash marks through deleted letters. Such deletions are shown only in the cases where whole words or recognizable portions of words have been removed from the text. Cross-outs of stray marks and occasional letters are not shown, as though the letters had never been entered into the text in the first place. Spaulding's original additions are indicated with insertion marks. The dashes occurring throughout the text are Spaulding's own; they are used often in place of periods and occasionally in conjunction with periods.


    - 23 & 24 -
    Spalding MS p. 154 photo
    Oberlin Spalding Manuscript
    High Resolution Photograph
    Page 154: enlargement
    Spalding MS p. 154, typescript
    Oberlin Spalding Manuscript
    Broadhurst Typescript
    Page 154: enlargement

    - 25 & 26 -

    Spalding MS p. 155 photo
    Oberlin Spalding Manuscript
    High Resolution Photograph
    Page 155: enlargement
    Spalding MS p. 155, typescript
    Oberlin Spalding Manuscript
    Broadhurst Typescript
    Page 155: enlargement


    - 27 & 28 -

    The Oberlin Spaulding Manuscript

    Pages 154-155 Notes

    MS page 154:

    The name Hamko is Spaulding's revision of the name Hamkien. In line 28 Hamko is written over Hamkien. In line 35 Spaulding did not correct the original name, probably by oversight. This letter fact is important, for it may indicate that Spaulding had not carefully re-read this manuscript in order to make revisions of the type which would have had to be made before a printer could have set the text for publication.

    MS page 155:

    The name Haloon shows signs of having been changed from Haboon[/Hakoon]. The word again on line 36 was written over some other indecipherable word. The changing of you to ye appears to be a rather unusual case of re-thinking on Spaulding's part. What his reasoning was in making such a change is now difficult to determine, but he may have been having thoughts of staying closer to the archaic forms similar to those [found] in the "King James" English of earlier times.


    - 29 -

    The Oberlin Spaulding Manuscript


    Extract for MS pages 154 and 155

    Note 4.: I typed up the original concordance extract for pages 154 and 155 in August of 1979, prior to my personal inspection of the Solomon Spalding holograph on file in the Oberlin College Archives. Since that time I have prepared a more extensive and reliable computerized concordance for the Spalding MS. As this more recent work was speedily carried out with the help of a computer database management program, spreadsheet processing, spell-check functions, etc., the results obtained were far less problematic than the outcome of my prior hand-work (as outlined on page 30 of this Proposal). The new concordance is an unpublished, computer word-processor format document, the contents of which cover the entire 171 pages of text found in the Oberlin holograph. At some future date I will re-compile this digital concordance as an html resource, utilizing the resources of William A. Williams' on-line concordance program and the accompanying Spalding e-text available at HTTP://WWW.concordance.COM/mormon.htm.

    In re-formatting pages 31-51 of my "Book of Mormon Research Grant Proposal" as a web-document I have revised the concordance extract in some places to match the contents of my more recently compiled word-processor text. Because of this re-formatting and revision of the presented data, the results offered here differ slightly from those in the 1979 original for pages 31-51.

    Dale R. Broadhurst
    November, 1998


    - 30 -


    So far as I know this is the first attempt ever made to prepare a concordance of the text from the Spalding MS. Were it not for the fact that the work has a been a subject of great controversy for so many years, I seriously doubt that such an effort could have ever been thought to be a worthwhile use of [anyone's] time.

    Only MS pages 154 and 155 were used in this effort, since it was conceived as a tool for working within the narrow limits of the model study of those two pages. Such a task is not quickly done, even when so limited. Each word occurring in the previously prepared transcript was listed along with the surrounding words of the contextual setting an in turn, that list was physically cut up and pasted back together in alphabetic order. The use of such crude methods lengthened the task to a period of several days of continual work. It is therefore highly suggested that any future extension of this labor be carried out through the use of modern, automatic data processing equipment.

    The following words [did] not appear in the [original 1979] list due to their ubiquity and numerous instance of occurrence. They are given here to complete the listing for quantitative [analysis] purposes.*











































    * Some word counts and spellings may differ slightly from those stated in 1979 original document,
    due to my use of the 1980 revised text in the concordance tables. For the revised transcripts please see MS page 154  and MS page 155.


    - 31 -

    - A -




    achieve  {atcheive}


























    154-05      with a. threefold vengeance 
    154-06      had a. further object
    154-15      a. very extraordinary instance
    154-16      worthy a. place on the
    154-29      can perform a. most brilliant
    154-29      held a. great festival
    154-34      make a. most dreadful slaughter
    154-38      achieve a. glorious deliverance
    155-08      lying in a. 
    155-18      Sciotans beheld a. most terrible
    155-21      Haloon with a. party of Sciotans
    155-31      with a. groan, expired"
    155-34      A. spear pierced him

    155-03      set a. three o'clock in the

    155-06      heroes had a. their plan

    154-37      may a. a glorious deliverance

    155-22      so far in a. that he was

    154-14      to gain a. over each other

    154-07      in an a. situation

    155-36      never breathed a. 

    155-24      defend himself a. the party

    154-01      distinction of a. or sex

    155-36      A. heroic youths!

    155-17      and the a. was given.

    154-25      in a. their excursions they
    155-05      At length a. became silent
    155-23      safe from a. danger

    155-26      I a. contrived the slaughter

    154-07      posted in a. advantageous situation
    154-35      the character of a. hero
    155-12      prevent a. unsuspected destruction.

    154-09      by placing . . .  a. by patrolling
    154-10      plundering a. destroying his towns
    154-10      a. from getting provisions
    154-11      a. in this way to compel
    154-13      maneuvering a. seeking
    154-14      by various arts a. stratagems
    154-15      heroism a. the display of the
    154-16      sincere a. ardent friendship
    154-17      of heroism a. friendship
    154-20      a. possessed of congenial tempers
    154-21      intimacy, a. formed toward
    154-23      a. in the great battle
    154-23      fought . . .  a. performed exploits
    154-24      exploits equally bold a. heroic
    154-24      ate at the same board a. drank
    154-25      a. in all their excursions
    154-26      attended . . .  a. walked hand-in-hand
    154-30      great festival a. until midnight
    154-30      in music a. dancing and in
    154-31      dancing a. in various diversions
    154-34      enter . . . a. make a most
    154-36      join you a. will either
    155-01      taking their swords a. tomahawks
    155-02      to reconnoiter a. find where
    155-02      could enter a. not be perceived
    155-06      Moon disappeared, a. these young
    155-09      fatigues of the day a. revels
    155-09      a. considering when they
    155-13      tomahawks a. swords of these
    155-14      a. so anxious were they
    155-17      a. the alarm was given.
    155-18      a. being fired with indignation
    155-20      Kelsock a. Hamko had nearly
    155-21      a. Haloon with a party
    155-25      a. running furiously back
    155-29      a. Haloon plunged his sword
    155-30      hero fell a. with a groan, expired
    155-32      upon Haloon a. darted
    155-35      cast . . . a. fell upon it
    155-35      embraced it a. never breathed
    155-36      ye lived a. in life
    155-37      in life a. death ye were 

    155-14      so a. were they to finish

    154-03      extermination . . . a. to be their object

    154-16      sincere and a. friendship

    154-07      attack the main a. whilst
    154-12      attack his a. in the position

    154-14      by various a. and stratagems

    154-26      A. these two friends were

    154-24      They ate a. the same board
    155-05      A. length all became silent
    155-32      he tumbled a. the feet

    154-24      They a. at the same board

    154-22      the strongest a. 

    154-06      to a. the main army
    154-12      to a. his army in the

    154-37      or perish in the a. 

    155-24      who was a. to defend himself

    154-25      they a. each other


    - 32 -

    - B -



















    brought  (bro't)



    155-25      and running furiously b. 

    154-23      in the great b. of Geheno

    154-03      appeared to b. their object
    154-04      soon b. their turn to have
    154-30      will b. employed in music and
    154-32      their sleep will b. sound.
    155-02      and not b. perceived by

    154-02      people . . .  b. the victims
    155-05      At length all b. silent,

    155-15      to dawn b. they had cleared

    155-15      the day b. to dawn

    155-05      fixed upon to b. the massacre

    155-18      The Sciotans b. a most terrible
    155-23      he b. Haloon

    154-31      B. greatly fatigued
    155-18      and b. fired with indignation

    154-24      ate at the same b. and drank

    155-34      the lifeless b. of his friend
    155-35      and fell upon his lifeless b. it

    154-24      exploits equally b. and heroic

    155-28      Here is my b. 

    155-01      They b. taking their swords

    155-35      and never b. again

    154-19      men who were b. in the

    155-03      The Moon shone b. but

    154-29      perform a most b. exploit

    155-09      the night had b. weariness

    154-08      B. it was Hamboon's policy
    155-03      shone bright b. would set
    155-11      B. their vigilance could not
    155-23      b. turning his eyes round
    155-33      B. Kelsock could not

    154-08      Hamboon's policy b. placing
    154-09      placing . . . and b. patrolling
    154-14      seeking b. various arts and
    154-23      they fought side b. side
    154-33      enter their camp b. slyly getting
    154-33      round b. their sentinels
    154-38      to our country, b. destroying
    155-03      be perceived b. the sentinels


    - 33 -

    - C -





    centinel (see "sentinel")















    154-33      enter their c. by slyly
    155-01      towards the c. of the Sciotans
    155-07      into the c. of the Sciotans
    155-16      their c. of their enemies

    154-28      we c. perform a most

    155-34      He c. his eyes

    155-13      youth soon c. hundreds to sleep

    154-35      worthy the c. of an hero

    155-16      they had c. themselves

    154-11      to c. them to cross

    154-20      possessed of c. tempers they

    154-03      not c. that it might
    155-09      and c. when they

    154-21      early c. the greatest

    155-26      I alone c. the slaughter

    155-02      find where they c. enter
    155-12      their vigilance c. not prevent
    155-33      Kelsock c. not long survive

    154-11      provisions from his c. 
    154-38      to our c. by destroying

    155-26      and . . . c. "Spare, O spare

    154-11      compel them to c. the river

    154-38      destroying our c. enemies

    154-04      such horrid c. retaliated

    154-25      drank of the same c. and


    - 34 -

    - D -























    154-30      in . . .  d. and in various diversions

    155-23      safe from all d. 

    155-13      swords of these d. youth

    155-32      and d. his sword

    155-15      day began to d. before they had

    155-09      the fatigues of the d. 
    155-15      the d. began to dawn

    155-37      in life and d. youe were

    155-24      attempting to d. himself

    154-38      glorious d. to our country

    154-10      plundering and d. his towns
    154-38      by d. our cruel enemies

    155-12      an unsuspected d. 
    155-15      the d. of their enemies

    154-08      garrisons in d. stations

    155-19      parties in every d. 

    155-06      the Moon d. 

    154-15      and the d. of the most

    154-16      friendship were d.

    154-01      without d. of age

    154-31      and in various d. 

    154-18      In the d. of Hamboon

    154-32      when they lie d. to rest
    155-10      they lay d. that

    154-24      ate . . . and d. of the same cup

    154-34      a most d. slaughter


    - 35 -

    - E -


    eat (see "ate")























    154-14      advantage over e. other
    154-21      toward e. other the strongest
    154-25      they attended e. other

    154-20      they e. contracted

    154-36      and will e. triumph with you

    155-35      He e. it and

    154-13      the two e. were thus

    154-30      will be e. in music and

    155-20      gained the e. of the Kentucks

    154-38      destroying our cruel e. 
    155-05      the massacre of their e. 
    155-15      destruction of their e. 
    155-16      their camp of their e. 

    154-32      then e. their camp by slyly
    155-02      could e. and not be perceived

    154-37      the success of the e.
    155-28      join me in the e.

    154-24      performed exploits e. bold

    155-14      to sleep in e. slumbers

    154-27      in their tent one e.

    155-19      parties in e. direction

    154-35      Your plan . . .  is e.

    154-25      in all their e. they

    154-19      for the e. of the noblest principles

    155-31      with a groan, e.

    154-29      a most brilliant e.

    154-24      performed e. equally bold

    154-02      The e. of the Kentucks

    154-15      very e. instance transpired

    155-23      turning his e. round
    155-34      cast his e. on the


    - 36 -

    - F -






















    155-22      Kelsock was so f. in advance

    154-31      greatly f. when they

    155-08      for the f. of the day

    155-33      tumbled at the f. of Hamko

    154-01      who f. into their hands
    155-30      young hero f. and . . . expired
    155-35      cast . . . and f. upon his lifeless body it

    154-30      a great f. and until midnight

    155-02      reconnoiter and f. where they could

    155-14      to f. the destruction

    155-19      being f. with indignation

    155-04      they had f. upon

    154-19      minds formed f. the exercise
    155-08      f. the fatigues of the day

    154-19      minds f. for the exercise
    154-21      and f. toward each

    155-19      sallied f. in parties

    154-23      they f. side by side

    155-08      They f. them lying

    155-24      seize his f. who was
    155-27      love to his f. induced him
    155-34      lifeless body of his f. 

    154-26      these two f. were sitting

    154-16      ardent f. were displayed
    154-17      of heroism and f. 
    155-36      In f. youe lived

    154-09      prevent the Sciotans f. plundering
    154-10      and f. getting provisions
    154-11      getting provisions f. his country
    155-11      secure them f. surprise
    155-16      cleared themselves f. the camp
    155-23      now safe f. all danger

    155-25      and running f. back

    154-06      had a f. object


    - 37 -

    - G -













    154-14      stratagems to g. advantage

    155-20      had nearly g. the encampment

    154-08      policy by placing g. in different

    154-23      the great battle of G. 

    154-10      from g. provisions from his
    154-33      slyly g. round by their
    155-07      plan in g. into the camp

    155-17      the alarm was g.

    154-38      a g. deliverance to our country

    154-23      in the g. battle of Geheno
    154-29      held a g. festival and until

    154-21      contracted the g. intimacy

    154-31      Being g. fatigued

    155-31      with a g. expired

    155-10      the vigilance of their g. 


    - 38 -

    - H -

























    154-06      likewise h. a further object
    154-12      the position he h. taken
    155-04      time they h. fixed upon
    155-06      heroes h. accomplished their
    155-09      the night h. brought weariness
    155-16      they h. cleared themselves
    155-17      Scarce however, h. they past
    155-20      Hamko h. nearly gained
    155-21      Sciotans h. overtaken Hamko
    155-29      Scarce h. he spoken

    155-21      and H. with a party
    155-23      beheld H. seize his friend
    155-29      and H. plunged his sword
    155-31      rushed upon H. and

    154-06      provoke H. to attack
    154-18      In the dominions of H. 
    154-22      of H. and in the great

    154-08      it was H. policy by placing

    154-28      says to H. "Something whispers
    154-35      plan" replied H. is excellent"
    155-20      and H. had nearly gained
    155-22      had overtaken H. 
    155-30      into the heart of H. 
    155-33      tumbled at the feet of H. 

    154-26      walked h. in hand
    154-26      walked hand in h. 

    154-01      who fell into their h. 

    154-04      their turn to h. such
    154-29      Sciotans h. held a great

    154-19      H. minds formed for the

    154-12      the position h. had taken
    155-22      that h. was now safe
    155-23      h. beheld Haloon seize
    155-26      H. is innocent
    155-29      Scarce had h. spoken
    155-32      prostrate h. tumbled
    155-34      H. cast his eyes
    155-35      H. embraced it

    155-30      into the h. of Hamko
    155-32      sword through his h. 

    154-29      have h. a great festival

    155-28      H. is my bosom
    155-29      h. take your revenge

    154-35      the character of an h. 
    155-30      The young h. fell

    155-06      young h. had accomplished

    154-24      equally bold and h. 
    155-36      Ah, h. youths!

    154-15      instance of h. and the
    154-17      of h. and friendship

    155-28      his friend induced h. to join me
    155-34      spear pierced h. in the side

    155-24      to defend h. against the party

    154-10      destroying h. towns, and
    154-11      provisions from h. country
    154-12      attack h. army in the position
    155-23      turning h. eyes round
    155-24      beheld Haloon seize h. friend
    155-27      love to h. friend induced him
    155-30      plunged h. sword into the heart
    155-32      darted h. sword through his heart
    155-32      sword through h. heart
    155-34      He cast h. eyes
    155-34      the lifeless body of h. friend
    155-35      fell upon h. lifeless body

    154-17      place on the h. page

    154-04      to have such h. cruelties

    155-16      Scarce h. had they past

    155-13      caused h. to sleep


    - 39 -

    - I -













    154-35      I. will join you
    155-26      I. alone contrived the slaughter

    154-06      a further object i. view
    154-07      posted i. an advantageous situation
    154-08      placing garrisons i. different stations
    154-11      and i. this way to compel
    154-12      attack his army i. the position
    154-18      I. the dominions of Hamboon
    154-19      who were bred i. the same village
    154-23      and i. the great battle
    154-25      and i. all their excursions
    154-26      walked hand i. hand
    154-27      were sitting i. their tent one evening
    154-30      employed i. music and dancing
    154-31      and i. various diversions
    154-36      triumph with you i. the success
    154-37      enterprise or perish i. the attempt
    155-02      repaired . . . i. order to reconnoiter
    155-04      three o'clock i. the morning
    155-07      plan i. getting into the camp
    155-08      lying i. a profound sleep
    155-14      to sleep i. eternal slumbers
    155-19      sallied forth i. parties
    155-19      parties i. every direction
    155-22      Kelsock was so far i. advance
    155-28      join me i. the enterprise
    155-34      pierced him i. the side
    155-36      I. friendship ye lived
    155-36      ye lived and i. life

    155-19      fired with i. sallied forth

    155-28      his friend i. him to join me

    154-02      of their i. malice

    155-26      He is i. 

    154-15      extraordinary i. of heroism
    154-17      i. transpired of heroism

    155-25      Kelsock turned i. 
    155-31      Kelsock i. rushed

    154-21      the greatest i. and formed

    154-01      who fell i. their hands
    155-07      getting i. the camp
    155-30      plunged his sword i. the heart

    154-16      which i. worthy a place
    154-35      Your plan . . .  i. excellent
    154-35      it i. worthy the
    155-26      He i. innocent
    155-28      Here i. my bosom

    154-04      considering that i. might soon be
    154-08      But i. was Hamboon's policy
    154-35      i. is worthy the
    155-35      and fell upon i. 
    155-35      embraced i. and never


    - 40 -

    - J & K -





    154-36      I will j. you and
    155-28      induced him to j. me

    154-22      They j. the standard
    155-37      in . . . death youe were j. 

    154-27      K. who was the oldest
    155-20      K. and Hamko had nearly
    155-22      K. was so far in advance
    155-25      K. turned instantly
    155-31      K. instantly rushed
    155-33      But K. could not

    154-03      extermination of the K. appeared
    155-20      encampment of the K. 

    - L -












    155-17      they past the l. sentinel

    155-10      they l. down that

    155-05      At l. all became silent

    154-32      when they l. down to rest

    155-36      in l. and death

    155-34      on the l. body of
    155-35      and fell upon his l. body it

    154-05     They l. had a further

    154-18      there l. two young men
    155-36      In friendship youe l. and

    155-33      Kelsock could not l. survive

    155-27      much l. to his friend

    155-08      found them l. in a profound


    - 41 -

    - M -


















    154-07      to attack the m. army

    154-34      and m. a most dreadful

    154-02      of their infuriated m. 

    154-13      thus m. and seeking

    155-05      the m. of their enemies.

    154-32      We m. then enter their
    154-37      we m. achieve a glorious

    154-28      whispers m. that this night
    155-28      to join m. in the enterprise

    154-18      two young m. who were bred

    154-30      and until m. they will be employed

    154-04      that it m. soon be

    154-19      Having m. formed for the

    155-03      The M. shone bright
    155-06      the M. disappeared

    155-04      three o'clock in the m. 

    154-15      the m. sincere and ardent
    154-29      perform a m. brilliant exploit
    154-34      make a m. dreadful slaughter
    155-18      Sciotans beheld a m. terrible slaughter

    155-27      Too m. love to his friend

    154-30      employed in m. and dancing

    155-28      Here is m. bosom


    - 42 -

    - N -







    155-20      Hamko had n. gained

    155-35      and n. breathed again

    154-28      this n. we can perform
    155-09      revels of the n. had brought

    154-20      exercise of the n. principles

    154-03      n. considering that it might
    155-02      enter and n. be perceived
    155-12      could n. prevent an unsuspected
    155-33      Kelsock could n. long survive

    155-22      he was n. safe

    - O -














    155-26      "Spare, O. spare the youth!

    155-04      about three o. in the morning

    154-03      appeared to be their o. 
    154-06      a further o. in view

    154-01      without distinction o. age or sex
    154-02      victims o. their infuriated malice
    154-03      The extermination o. the Kentucks
    154-15      instance . . . o. heroism and
    154-15      display o. the most sincere
    154-17      instance . . .  o. heroism
    154-18      In the dominions o. Hamboon
    154-20      the exercise o. the noblest principles
    154-20      possessed o. congenial tempers
    154-22      the standard o. Hamboon
    154-23      the great battle o. Geheno
    154-25      and drank o. the same cup
    154-35      worthy the character o. an hero
    154-36      the success o. the enterprise
    155-01      towards the camp o. the Sciotans
    155-05      the massacre o. their enemies.
    155-07      the camp o. the Sciotans
    155-08      the fatigues o. the day
    155-09      revels o. the night had
    155-10      the vigilance o. their guards
    155-13      swords o. these daring youth
    155-15      the destruction o. their enemies
    155-16      the camp o. their enemies.
    155-18      terrible slaughter o. their warriors
    155-20      the encampment o. the Kentucks
    155-21      with a party o. Sciotans
    155-27      the slaughter o. the Sciotans
    155-30      into the heart o. Hamko
    155-33      tumbled at the feet o. Hamko
    155-34      the lifeless body o. his friend

    154-27      Kelsock, who was the o. says

    154-17      place o. the historic page.
    155-34      cast his eyes o. the

    154-27      sitting in their tent o. evening

    154-01      distinction of age o. sex
    154-12      cross the river o. to attack
    154-37      triumph . . . o. perish in the attempt

    155-02      in o. to reconnoiter

    154-15      advantage over each o. 
    154-21      toward each o. the strongest
    154-25      attended each o. and walked

    154-38      deliverance to o. country
    154-38      by destroying o. cruel enemies

    154-14      gain advantage o. each other

    155-21      Sciotans had o. Hamko.


    - 43 -

    - P -




    passed  (past)
























    154-17      place on the historic p. 

    154-09      patrolling p. to prevent
    155-19      in p. in every direction

    155-21      Haloon with a p. of Sciotans
    155-25      himself against the p. 

    155-17      they p. the last sentinel

    154-09      by p. parties to prevent

    154-01      p. without distinction

    155-02      be p. by the sentinels

    154-29      we can p. a most

    154-23      and p. exploits

    154-37      P. we may achieve

    154-37      triumph . . . or p. in the attempt

    155-34      A spear p. him

    154-16      a p. on the historic

    154-08      policy by p. garrisons

    154-34      "Your p. . . . is excellent
    155-07      their p. in getting into

    154-10      prevent . . .  p. and destroying

    155-29      Haloon p. his sword into

    154-08      it was Hamboon's p. by placing

    154-12      in the p. he had taken

    154-20      and p. of congenial tempers

    154-07      whilst p. in an

    154-09      to p. the Sciotans from
    155-12      not p. an unsuspected destruction.

    154-20      of the noblest p. and

    155-08      lying in a p. sleep

    155-32      p. he tumbled

    154-10      getting p. from his country

    154-06      to p. Hamboon to attack


    - 44 -

    - R -












    155-02      in order to r. and find

    155-01      r. towards the camp

    154-34      "Your plan" r. (Hamko)

    154-32      they lie down to r. their

    154-04      horrid cruelties r. upon themselves

    155-09      and r. of the night

    155-29      here take your r. 

    154-12      to cross the r. or to attack

    154-33      getting r. by their
    155-23      turning his eyes r. he beheld

    155-25      and r. furiously back

    155-31      instantly r. upon Haloon


    - 45 & 46 -

    - S -










    sentinel (centinal)

    sentinels (centinals)







    sitting  (setting)

























    155-22      now s. from all danger

    155-19      with indignation, s. forth

    154-19      were bred in the s. village
    154-24      They ate at the s. board
    154-25      drank of the s. cup

    154-27      the oldest, s. to Hamko

    155-16      S. however, had they past
    155-29      S. had he spoken

    154-09      prevent the S. from plundering
    154-29      The S. have held
    155-01      the camp of the S. in
    155-07      into the camp of the S. unperceived
    155-18      The S. beheld a most
    155-21      a party of S. had overtaken
    155-27      the slaughter of the S. 

    155-11      their guards would s. them

    154-13      and s. by various arts

    155-24      beheld Haloon s. his friend

    155-17      they past the last s. 

    154-33      by . . . their s. unperceived
    155-03      be perceived by the s. 

    155-03      would s. about three o'clock

    154-01      distinction of age or s. 

    155-03      The Moon s. bright

    154-23      they fought s. by side
    154-23      fought side by s. and
    155-34      pierced him in the s. 

    155-05      At length all became s. 

    154-16      the most s. and ardent

    154-26      friends were s. in their tent

    154-07      in an advantageous s. 

    154-34      a most dreadful s. 
    155-18      a most terrible s. of their warriors
    155-27      the s. of the Sciotans

    154-32      their s. will be sound
    155-08      lying in a profound s. 
    155-14      hundreds to s. in eternal slumbers

    155-11      they s. with unusual soundness.

    155-14      to sleep in eternal s. 

    154-33      enter their camp by s. getting

    155-14      and s. anxious were they
    155-22      Kelsock was s. far in advance

    154-28      S. whispers me that

    154-04      might s. be their turn
    155-13      daring youth s. caused hundreds

    154-32      their sleep will be s. 

    155-11      slept with unusual s. 

    155-26      cried: S. O spare
    155-26      "Spare, O s. the youth!"

    155-34      A s. pierced him

    155-29      Scarce had he s. 

    154-22      joined the s. of Hamboon

    154-09      in different s. and

    154-14      by . . .  s. to gain

    154-22      formed . . . the s. attachment

    154-36      the s. of the enterprise

    154-04      to have s. horrid cruelties

    155-11      secure them from s. 

    155-33      Kelsock could not long s. 

    155-30      plunged his s. into the heart
    155-32      his s. through his heart

    155-01      taking their s. and tomahawks
    155-13      tomahawks and s. of these


    - 47 & 48 -

    - T -



































    155-29      here t. your revenge

    154-12      the position he had t. 

    155-01      They both, t. their swords

    154-20      of congenial t. they

    154-27      sitting in their t. one evening

    155-18      beheld a most t. slaughter

    154-03      considering t. it might soon be
    154-28      whispers me t. this night
    155-10      considering . . . t. the vigilance
    155-15      t. the day began to dawn
    155-22      so far in advance t. he was

    154-02      became t. victims of
    154-02      T. extermination of the Kentucks
    154-03      extermination of t. Kentucks appeared
    154-07      to attack t. main army
    154-09      prevent t. Sciotans from plundering
    154-11      compel them to cross t. river
    154-12      attack his army in t. position
    154-13      While t. two emperors were
    154-15      heroism and t. display of the
    154-15      display of t. most sincere and
    154-17      place on t. historic page
    154-18      In t. dominions of Hamboon
    154-19      who were bred in t. same village
    154-19      formed for t. exercise of the noblest
    154-20      the exercise of t. noblest principles
    154-21      early contracted t. greatest
    154-21      formed . . . t. strongest attachment
    154-22      joined t. standard of Hamboon
    154-23      in t. great battle of Geheno
    154-24      They ate at t. same board
    154-25      drank of t. same cup
    154-27      Kelsock, who was t. oldest
    154-29      T. Sciotans have held
    154-35      worthy t. character of an hero
    154-36      with you in t. success of the
    154-36      the success of t. enterprise
    154-37      or perish in t. attempt
    155-01      repaired towards t. camp of
    155-01      the camp of t. Sciotans in
    155-03      be perceived by t. sentinels
    155-03      T. Moon shone bright
    155-04      three o'clock in t. morning
    155-04      this was t. time they had
    155-05      begin t. massacre
    155-06      t. Moon disappeared
    155-07      getting into t. camp
    155-07      the camp of t. Sciotans
    155-08      for t. fatigues of the day
    155-09      the fatigues of t. day
    155-09      revels of t. night had
    155-10      that t. vigilance of their guards
    155-13      T. tomahawks and swords
    155-14      finish t. destruction
    155-15      that t. day began to dawn
    155-16      from t. camp of their enemies.
    155-17      they past t. last sentinel
    155-17      and t. alarm was given.
    155-18      T. Sciotans beheld a most
    155-20      gained t. encampment of the
    155-20      the encampment of t. Kentucks
    155-25      himself against t. party
    155-26      Spare, O spare t. youth!
    155-27      I alone contrived t. slaughter
    155-27      the slaughter of t. Sciotans
    155-28      join me in t. enterprise
    155-30      his sword into t. heart
    155-30      T. young hero fell
    155-33      tumbled at t. feet of Hamko
    155-34      pierced him in t. side
    155-34      on t. lifeless body

    154-01      who fell into t. hands
    154-02      of t. infuriated malice
    154-03      appeared to be t. object
    154-04      be t. turn to have
    154-25      in all t. excursions they
    154-27      sitting in t. tent one evening
    154-32      lie down to rest, t. sleep
    154-33      enter t. camp by slyly
    154-33      by t. sentinels unperceived
    155-01      They both, taking t. swords
    155-05      the massacre of t. enemies.
    155-07      had accomplished t. plan
    155-10      the vigilance of t. guards
    155-12      But t. vigilance could not
    155-15      the destruction of t. enemies
    155-16      the(ir) camp of t. enemies.
    155-18      terrible slaughter of t. warriors

    154-11      compel t. to cross the river
    155-08      They found t. lying
    155-09      weariness upon t. 
    155-11      would secure t. from surprise

    154-05      retaliated upon t. with
    155-16      cleared t. from the camp

    154-32      may t. enter their camp

    154-18      In the dominions . . .  t. lived

    154-26      As t. two friends were
    155-06      t. young heroes had
    155-13      swords of t. daring youth

    154-05      T. likewise had
    154-20      of congenial tempers t. early
    154-22      T. joined the standard
    154-23      in . . . battle . . . t. fought
    154-24      T. ate at the same board
    154-25      in . . . excursions t. attended
    154-30      until midnight t. will be employed in
    154-31      when t. lie down to rest
    155-01      T. both, taking their swords
    155-02      find where t. could enter
    155-04      the time t. had fixed upon
    155-08      T. found them lying
    155-10      when t. lay down
    155-11      t. slept with unusual soundness.
    155-14      so anxious were t. to finish
    155-15      before t. had cleared
    155-17      Scarce however, had t. past

    154-11      in t. way to compel them
    154-28      that t. night we can perform
    155-04      t. was the time they had

    155-03      about t. o'clock in the morning

    154-05      with a t. vengeance

    155-32      his sword t. his heart

    154-13      emperors were t. maneuvering

    155-04      was the t. they had fixed

    154-03      appeared t. be their object
    154-04      their turn t. have such
    154-06      was t. provoke Hamboon to
    154-06      provoke . . . t. attack the main army
    154-09      parties t. prevent the Sciotans
    154-11      this way t. compel them to cross
    154-11      compel them t. cross the river
    154-12      or t. attack his army
    154-14      stratagems t. gain advantage
    154-28      the oldest, says t. Hamko
    154-32      when they lie down t.  rest
    154-38      deliverance t. our country
    155-02      in order t. reconnoiter
    155-04      fixed upon t. begin the massacre
    155-14      caused hundreds t. sleep in eternal
    155-14      so anxious were they t. finish
    155-15      day began t. dawn
    155-24      was attempting t. defend himself
    155-27      love t. his friend induced him
    155-28      induced him t. join me

    155-01      their swords and t. 
    155-13      The t. and swords

    155-27      T. much love to his friend

    154-21      formed t. each other

    155-01      repaired t. the camp

    154-10      destroying his t. and

    154-15      extraordinary instance t. 
    154-16      friendship . . . t. which is worthy
    154-17      instance t. of heroism

    154-36      either t. with you in the success

    155-32      he t. at the feet

    154-04      their t. to have such

    155-25      Kelsock t. instantly

    155-23      but, t. his eyes round

    154-13      While the t. emperors were
    154-18      there lived t. young men
    154-26      these t. friends were sitting


    - 49 -

    - U -






    154-33      enter . . . u. and make a most
    155-07      into the camp . . . u. 

    155-12      prevent an u. destruction.

    154-30      festival and u. midnight they

    155-11      they slept with u. soundness.

    154-05      retaliated u. themselves with
    155-04      they had fixed u. to begin
    155-09      brought weariness u. them
    155-31      rushed u. Haloon
    155-35      cast . . . and fell u. . . . it

    - V -








    154-14      seeking by v. arts and stratagems
    154-31      and in v. diversions

    154-05      with a threefold v. 

    154-15      a v. extraordinary instance

    154-02      the v. of their infuriated malice

    154-06      a further object in v. 

    155-10      the v. of their guards
    155-12      their v. could not prevent

    154-19      were bred in the same v. 


    - 50 & 51 -

    - W -




















    154-26      and w. hand-in-hand

    155-18      slaughter of their w. 

    154-06      which w. to provoke Hamboon
    154-08      But it w. Hamboon's policy by placing
    154-27      Kelsock, who w. the oldest
    155-04      this w. the time they had
    155-17      the alarm w.  given.
    155-22      Kelsock w. so far in advance
    155-22      he w. now safe
    155-24      friend, who w. attempting to

    154-11      in this w. to compel them to

    154-28      w. can perform a most
    154-32      W. may then enter
    154-37      Perhaps w. may achieve

    155-09      brought w. upon them

    154-13      emperors w. thus maneuvering
    154-16      ardent friendship w. displayed
    154-19      young men who w. bred in
    154-26      two friends w. sitting in their
    155-14      so anxious w. they to finish
    155-37      in . . . death ye w. joined

    154-31      greatly fatigued, w. they lie down
    155-10      considering w. they lay down

    155-02      and find w. they could

    154-06      object . . .  w. was to provoke
    154-16      transpired w. is worthy

    154-13      W. the two emperors were

    154-07      attack . . .  w. posted

    154-28      Something w. me that this

    154-01      w. fell into their hands
    154-18      two young men w. were bred
    154-27      Kelsock, w. was the oldest
    155-24      his friend, w. was attempting

    154-30      they w. be employed in music
    154-32      their sleep w. be sound
    154-35      I w. join you
    154-36      join you and w. either

    154-05      retaliated . . .  w. a threefold vengeance
    154-36      triumph w. you in the success
    155-11      they slept w. unusual soundness.
    155-19      fired w. indignation, sallied forth
    155-21      Haloon w. a party of Sciotans
    155-31      and, w. a groan, expired

    154-01      people w. distinction

    154-16      which is w. a place
    154-35      is w. the character

    155-03      but w. set about three o'clock
    155-10      their guards w. secure them

    - X, Y & Z -


    you  (see also "ye")




    155-36      In friendship youy. lived
    155-37      in life and death youy. were

    154-36      will join y. and will either
    154-36      triumph with y. in the success

    154-18      two y. men who were bred
    155-06      these y. heroes had
    155-30      The y. hero fell

    154-34      Y. plan . . . is excellent
    155-29      here take y. revenge

    155-13      these daring y. soon caused
    155-26      "Spare, O spare the y.

    155-36      Ah, heroic y.

    - end of MS pp. 154-155 extract -


    - 52 -

    The [Oberlin] Solomon Spaulding Manuscript


    Extract for MS pages 154 and 155

    compared with

    Selected Book of Mormon Passages

    Note 5.: I prepared in the original textual comparisons tabulation and its accompanying discussion in August of 1979, prior to my initiating the Spalding Research Project (SRP) in Ohio at the beginning of 1980. In the 1979 model study I conducted a comparative textual investigation only for the MS material found on pages 154 and 155. This study was not comprehensive, in that all the word groupings identifiable on those two pages were not tabulated in juxtaposition with an exhaustive list of the same, or very similar word groupings identifiable in the Book of Mormon text.

    In the course my investigations conducted during the initial phase of the SRP in 1980 and 1981 I compiled comparisons tabulations for all 171 pages of the Oberlin Spalding MS, matching a very large (though not exhaustive) selection of Spalding word groupings with a relatively lengthy list of the same, or very similar word groupings identifiable in the Book of Mormon and also in the Authorized (King James) Bible including the Apocrypha. Since 1981 I have extended the scope of my comparisions tabulation to include relatively lengthy word grouping lists from a number of various sources, including the possible Spalding work "Romance of Celes" (a MS in the Library of Congress). In conducting these investigations I have yet to formulate a standard methodology by which word groupings in the Spalding text might be automatically identified, extracted, and compiled for computerized comparisons with the same, or very similar word groupings identifiable in other texts. Obviously it is possible to automatically make such identifications, based solely on the criteria of locating all occurrences if some selected number of certain words wherever those words occur within predetermined instances of "close proximity" in the text. However, computerized test runs relying on this kind of a purely mechanical selection methodology have so far generated little more than huge lists of generally meaningless word combinations. While the quantification and statistical analysis of these lists may eventually prove valuable for "word-print" determinations, this methodology does not appear to be very productive in locating and documenting the kinds of phraseology examples that might demonstrate probable textual inter-relationships to the casual observer.

    In an attempt to identify and tabulate extensive occurrences of the latter type of phrases, clauses, and other sentence fragments, I have returned to my original, less than rigorous methodical (and admittedly very subjective) inspections of the texts, but coupling those close readings with a reliance on digital concordance helps and my own production of color coded digital texts wherein all vocabulary common to two texts is marked with a certain color. Strings of words common to two texts are also marked in each with that same color of an underlining. The several results of this work (further comparing the Oberlin Spalding MS with the 1830 Book of Mormon text) would allow me to supplement my old 1979 tabulation with many more interesting word groupings common to the two texts. As it is my primary purpose to here provide a reproduction of my 1979 Proposal, I have resisted adding such extra examples of common phraseology, and have limited my notation on such matters to this introductory statement.

    Dale R. Broadhurst
    November, 1998


    - 53 -

    [The Use of Textual Comparisons]

    The Solomon Spaulding MS contains many of the same words which we find in the 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon. This is to be expected in that both works were written down in the same general area of the country and in about the same time-span (between 1812 and 1829). Obviously the English language commonly used in northwestern Ohio in 1812 and that used in northern New York state in 1829 were practically the same. We might expect the vocabulary of a college educated man (Spaulding) to be somewhat different from that of an uneducated farm-boy (Smith) but the element of "inspired translation" in the coming forth of the Book of Mormon makes it difficult for us to limit Joseph Smith's English to the aforesaid category. Actually, the word-lists of the two works are not so very dissimilar; the main difference between the two is that Smith appears to have drawn upon "King James" biblical language much more heavily than did Spaulding.

    We can also expect the Spaulding text to contain a number of word groupings nearly identical to selected passages from the Book of Mormon. Such expressions as " according to the and on both sides appear to be innocuous in and of themselves and it should come as no surprise that such phrasing is common to both works. It is only when such parallel phraseology occurs in unusual patterns or in an unusual number of instances that we need be very concerned with it. If, for instance, the first few pages of the Book of Mormon were comprised only of such parallels, that would be a highly unusual situation requiring [our] closer investigation. Or, if several Book of Mormon pages contained a number of parallel expressions in the exact same order as their occurrence in the Spaulding romance, then we would be forced to look at the matter more closely.*

    * For a discussion on degrees of significance in vocabulary parallels between the two works see Hugh Nibley's "The Comparative Method" in The Improvement Era vol. 62 no. 10 (Oct. 1959) o. 744.

    - 54 -

    In the two pages which I have closely examined (MS p. 154 & 155) I have not noticed any occurrences of the magnitude of the theoretical cases pointed out above. What a more comprehensive view of both works might show I am unable to say at this point [in my ] of study of the two texts. Beyond the expected affinities in the two texts there are however, some word combinations common to both works which are really quite unexpected. I have attempted to compile a list of all the parallels as they occur in the two MS pages, including these unexpected examples. In each case, after giving the Spaulding quote, I have then listed one or more Book of Mormon passages which have the same word usage and structure. Often two Book of Mormon passages are required to match the entire wording of a single Spaulding quote, In such cases the entire train of thought is not the same in any one place in the portions of both works which were examined; what is being shown is the fact that The Book of Mormon does contain the same word usage, even though either case noted is only a partial textual commonality. Some of the examples show that the writers of the two works used the exact same words to express the exact same thought. Such examples may show some common element which entered into the formulations of both texts. Such intangible "elements" are not necessarily related only to a common authorship or direct plagiarism, but rather are part of a greater set of many possible answers to why such commonalities occur. Thus, while such textual commonalities may indicate a direct relationship between the two texts, they do not necessarily prove that such a relationship ever existed. The listing is followed by a short discussion of some of the more unusual affinities occurring on MS pages 154 & 155 and in the Book of Mormon.

    - 55 -

    The title page of the 1830 Palmyra edition of the Book of Mormon
    Note: This edition is used for all citations unless otherwise specified


    - 56 -

    [Spaulding MS quotes shown in red-brown type]

    153-36, 154-01 & 02:

    Alma XII p 271:

    Mosiah I p 135:

    154-06 6 07:

    Jacob I p 121:

    Alma XXV p 381:


    Alma XXVII p 395:

    154-11 & 12:

    Alma XXIV p 375:

    Alma XX p 343:


    Ether VI p 569:


    Alma XXVI p 390:

    Mormon III p 529:


    Ether III p 552:

    Alma XXVI p 386:


    Alma XXI p 357:

    all . . . who fell into their hands became the victems of their infuriated malace --

    all the Nephites which fell into their hands

    have fallen into the hands of the Lamanites and become victims to their hatred.

    to provoke Hamboon to attack the main army

    to provoke him to anger

    preparations to attack the city

    posted in an advantageous situation

    placed you in a situation that ye might

    to compel them to cross the River or to

    did compel them to go forth

    began to cross the river Sidon

    attack his army in the position he had taken

    dwelt with his army in the wilderness

    by various arts & stratigems to gain an advantage over each . . .

    resolving by stratagem to destroy

    to gain advantage over the Lamanites

    there lived two youge men who

    was divided, and there was two

    those young men which had

    in the same village --

    instructed in the same knowledge


    - 57 -


    Alma XXVII p 394:

    Alma XXIII p 368:


    Mormon IV p 532:


    Alma XXIII p 368:


    2 Nephi IV p 77:


    Mosiah I p 156:


    Alma XXVI p 382:


    Wd. Mor. I p 152:

    154-32 & 33:

    Alma XIV p 298:

    Ether VI p 571:


    Alma XXVII p 394:


    Alma XV p 303:

    Mormon I p 552:

    They joined the standard of Hamboon &

    they came even and joined the army of Moroni

    to the standard of liberty, and

    & in the great battle of Geheno they

    after the great . . . battle at Cumorah

    eat at the same board

    and it was at the same

    & drank of the same cup

    drunken the dregs of the cup

    in their tent one evening --

    remain in their tents and

    Kelsock who was the oldest

    Laman, which was the eldest

    something whispers me: that this night

    thus it whispereth me, according to

    We may then enter their camp . . . and --

    we have entered their houses and

    returned to their camp

    with you in the success of the

    because of the success of the

    Perhaps we may atcheive

    that perhaps I may be

    perhaps we might save them


    - 58 -


    Alma XXVII p 396:

    Alma XXII p 269:

    Alma XIV p 292:


    Alma I p 226:

    Alma XXVI p 389:


    Alma XII p 274:


    Alma XXV p 380:


    Alma XXI p 360:

    Alma XXII p 363:


    Alma XXVI p 386:


    Alma XXVI p 382:


    Alma XXIX p 404:

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    They both taking their swords &

    instead of taking up their swords

    They departed . . . and and took their swords and

    they took their swords and all the weapons

    towards the camp of the Sciotans

    to watch the camp of the Amilicites

    to watch the camp of the Lamanites

    in order to reconnoiter and

    in order to defend thy

    in the morning

    in the morning they beheld

    begin the massacre of their enemies

    or massacre them according to

    the hands of their enemies

    At length all became silent

    at length their provisions did arrive

    & these young heroes had accomplished

    of these young men hath taken

    in geting into the camp of the Sciotans

    did go forth into the camp of the Lamanites

    and went into the camp of Amalickiah


    - 59 -


    Mosiah XI p 206:

    Alma XXV p 380:

    155-08 & 09:

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    Alma XXIX p 402:


    Alma XIV p 290:

    155-14 & 15:

    1 Nephi VII p 58:

    2 Nephi IV p 75:


    Alma XXIX p 404:

    Alma XX p 342:

    Alma XXII p 363:


    Alma XX p 343:

    Mormon III p 529:

    155-18 & 19:

    Alma XXVI p 384:

    Alma XXVI p 390:

    They found them lying in a profound sleep

    their task-masters were in a profound sleep

    the Lamanites were in a deep sleep . . . . and all those things were done in a profound silence

    the fatigues of the day & revels of the night had bro't weariness upon them

    much fatigue . . . of the day

    sleep had overpowered them because

    the darkness of the night

    when they lay down

    they did lay down

    the destruction of their enemies

    the destruction of their enemies by fire

    the destruction of their enemies

    from their camp of their enemies

    into the camp of the Lamanites

    to watch their camp

    against the coming of their enemies

    had they past the last

    the Lamanites had passed the

    and they passed by me

    the Sciotans . . . sallied forth in parties

    the Lamanites . . . began to sally forth

    the Lamanites were sallying forth


    - 60 -


    Ether III p 552:

    Alma XX p 343:

    Alma XXIX p 403:


    Alma XXVI p 385:


    3 Nephi VIII p 488:

    3 Nephi VIII p 492:


    Alma XXIV p 371:


    Helaman III p 433:


    2 Nephi IX p 97:

    155-30 & 31:

    Helaman II p 424:

    Alma XXI p 356:

    Helaman I p 411:

    155-32 & 33:

    Alma XII p 278:

    Alma XXI p 352:

    had nearly gained the encampment of the Kentucks

    he had gained the half of the

    the camp of the Lamanites

    they did encamp for the night

    a party of the Sciotans had overtaken

    the armies of Antipus had overtaken

    but turning his eyes round he beheld Haloon

    he cast his eyes round . . . and beheld

    he turned his eyes again upon

    who was attempting to defend himself against

    he was preparing to defend himself against them

    spare the youth, he is innocent

    declare unto you that he is innocent

    the slaughter of the Sciotans

    according to the slaughter of  (cf. Isaiah 10:26)

    plunged his sword into the heart of Hamko -- The young hero fell & with a groan expired --

    into the heart of Gadianton

    stabbed him to the heart

    did stab Kishkumen even to the heart, that he fell dead without a groan

    prostrate he tumbled at the feet of Hamko

    lay prostrate upon the earth

    at the feet of Moroni


    - 61 -


    Alma XXIX p 404:


    3 Nephi VII p 485:

    Mosiah II p 162:

    Ether I p 544:


    Alma XIXII p 365:

    A spear pierced him in the side

    a javelin . . . did pierce him near the heart

    he cast his eyes on the lifeless body of his friend

    he cast his eyes round about on the

    he cast his eyes round about on the

    is the body of my

    and fell upon his

    and he fell upon her

    - end [of tabulation] -

    Discussion: Part One

    In the above list I have pointed out forty-four instances of parallel wording in the two MS pages [as compared with] the 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon. Some of these examples seem to be of the expected variety. At the same; in a situation; and in order to are representative of this first type. Other examples are [of a] much less expected [type], such as: all who fell into there hands; whispers me; into the camp of the; in a profound sleep; the destruction of their enemies; sallied forth; fell . . . with a groan; and he cast his eyes on the.

    Space does not permit a detailed exegesis of each Book of Mormon passage cited above, so I'll limit my exploration to that of [just] one example. In the story by Spaulding two warriors of the opposing sides in a great war meet each other in single combat. One was killed and "fell with a groan." This image if a dying foe giving out one last groan as he falls appears to have appealed to Spaulding, for he used the identical element on MS page 148


    - 62 -

    line 14, in the telling of a similar story.

    In the Book of Mormon we find the word groan used only once in that form and that is in the Book of Helaman, where Kishkumen the robber is stabbed by the servant of Helaman. Here Kishkumen "fell . . . without a groan." The parallel found here is remarkable for it shows a possibility of the two texts [sharing] some mutual influence for their phrasing. Spaulding has his characters falling and groaning when they are killed but the Nephite writers do not. Then why should the Nephites add that Kishkumen "fell . . . without a groan"? If falling and groaning scenes were common features in the Nephite record we might see a good reason for the addition of this piece of detail. But since this is not the case, the detail appears strangely out of place. It reads like an afterthought not clearly worked out, or, even moreso, like an aforethought never completely deleted but nolonger needed in the story.

    If structural parallels of this nature are common elements between the two works we may have a serious problem [facing us]. Did one of these texts in some way influence, complement, or expand upon the other? If such parallels are very infrequent the problem may not be so large, but [they] would still [constitute] a valid area for exploration.

    One other example of textual affinity which I will explore briefly is that of both Smith and Spaulding using the word massacre. It is highly doubtful that the Nephites used that particular word derived from Middle French, but it is not so problematic to credit it to Smith's vocabulary. How Joseph Smith picked up the word is impossible to discover at this point, however.

    Spaulding uses massacre in various forms in a number of places in his story, such as [on] page 158 lines 13 & 22: "massacre the whole multitude" and "the massacre of the defenceless multitude without regard to age or sex." This last Spaulding quote is quite similar to one of the two Book of Mormon


    - 63 -

    passages where massacre appears: "that their wives and children should be massacred by the barbarous cruelty of those who were once their brethren," In this particular Book of Mormon passage (Alma XXI p 359) we see the only occurances of the words barbarous and cruelty in the Nephite record. Why such "Spauldingish" words all occur together is a question worth asking. Again, if such patterns of word occurances are very common in the Book of Mormon and the Spaulding romance, we have a serious problem facing us.

    Discussion: Part Two

    On the two pages examined Spaulding gives a rather unconvincing story of the great friendship between two Kentuck warriors who engage in "daring exploits" against the enemy Sciotans. [As in Homeric and Virgilian epics] the two are successful in slipping into the enemy camp and killing many of the Sciotans in their sleep. However, as the two are escaping the camp, the Sciotans awake to discover the slaughter and pursue after the two. One is overtaken and killed, while the other turns back to defend his friend and is killed himself.

    On the surface this story might seem to have little in common with Book of Mormon events, other than the fact that it contains camps, warriors, and fighting. A closer look at the text reveals much more. The event takes place during a temporary lull in a great war between two peoples who in many ways parallel the Nephites and the Lamanites at the time when the Lamanites were under the command of traitorous Nephites. The latter portion of the Book of Alma [also] contains a number of short stories set within the greater context of the Nephite-Lamanite wars.

    The [episodes] which make up the account of Teancum's secret night-time slayings of King Amalickiah and also his brother, King Ammoron,

    - 64 -

    together make up one of these stories* in an account not too unlike that of Rev. Spaulding. Situated between these two [episodes] are two stories of Moroni capturing two Lamanite-held cities. These two stories also contain a number of structural elements very similar to Spaulding's. Another two stories from the Nephite record [sharing] similarities to that of the Kentucks and Sciotans are the stories of Alma and Ammon each leading a people in their escape from the Lamanites. Finally, two other Book of Mormon stories having remarkable parallels to the Spaulding episode are those of Nephi's murder of Laban and Gilead the Jaredite's slaughter of the drunken army of Coriantumr.

    Each of these eight Book of Mormon accounts has internal structural elements which link it closely with the other seven stories. These common elements are: 1. all take place at night; 2. all contain an unconscious enemy; and 3. all tell of a successful exploit by the "good guys" of the story. In addition to these three elements there are many more which occur in several of the eight stories but not in every one of them.

    When these structural elements are all listed and examined, many are found to be identical (or nearly identical) to elements in the Spaulding episode recounted on MS pages 154 and 155. In addition to these thematic elements, there can also be found instances of identical (or nearly identical) phrasing in the eight Book of Mormon stories and the Spaulding story. What we have before us is not just a case of the Spaulding episode being somewhat like a passage or two in the Book of Mormon, but rather, an example of a ninth story which fits into the pattern of the other eight. In fact, the Spaulding episode fits so well into the pattern that the matter can in no way be dismissed as a casual coincidence

    *see J.N. Washburn's discussion of stories of this type in his The Contents, Structure and Authorship of the Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City, 1954, p. 42.

    - 65 -

    Below I have attempted to list some of the major parallels in the nine stories. This is [not] a comprehensive listing of all the affinities in the stories.

       A. Each of the nine stories takes place at night. Some carry over to morning.

    Spaulding 155-28:

    Ether VI p 569:

    1 Nephi I p 12:

    Mosiah X p 202:

    Mosiah XI p 206:

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    Alma XXV p 380:

    Alma XXIX p 402:

    Alma XXIX p 403:

    this night we can perform a most brilliant exploit

    Shared did march forth . . . by night heart

    And it was by night . . . I, Nephi, crept into the city

    the people of King Limhi did depart by night

    even all the night-time were they gathering

    when night had come, Teancum . . . stole forth

    this was done in the night-time

    when the night came, Moroni went forth

    stratagem in the night-time

       B. Those mentioning the next morning.

    155-05 & 15:

    Mosiah XI p 206:

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    Alma XXV p 380:

    Alma XXIX p 402:

    in the morning . . . day began to dawn

    and in the morning the Lord caused

    the Lamanites awoke on the first morning

    the Lamanites awoke in the morning

    when the morning came they were all

       C. All nine stories have an unconscious enemy who is either alseep or drunk.

    Spaulding 155-08:

    Ether VI p 569:

    1 Nephi I p 12:

    Mosiah X p 202:

    Mosiah XI p 206:

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    Alma XXV p 380:

    Alma XXIX p 402:

    Alma XXIX p 403:

    They found them lying in a profound sleep for the . . . revels of the night had bro't weariness

    as they were drunken

    for he was drunken with wine

    the Lamanites by night are drunken

    their task-masters were in a profound sleep

    sleep had overpowered them

    all drunken and were in a deep sleep

    and they were all asleep

    (Ammoron awakens, so he must have been asleep)


    - 66 -

       D. Several stories stress the element of stealth on the part of the hero(es).


    1 Nephi I p 12:

    Mosiah X p 202:

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    Alma XXV p 380:

    Alma XXIX p 402:

    Alma XXIX p 403:

    by slyly getting round . . . their sentinals

    Nephi crept into the city and went forth

    through the secret pass

    Teancum and his servant stole forth

    those things were done in a profound silence

    Moroni went forth in the darkness . . . to spy

    resolve upon any stratagem in the night-time

       E. Enemy territory is either entered or exited:


    1 Nephi I p 12:

    Mosiah X p 206:

    Mosiah XI p 202:

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    Alma XXV p 380:

    Alma XXIX p 402:

    Alma XXIX p 403:

    getting into the camp of the Sciotans unperceived

    crept into the city . . . the house of Laban

    through the secret pass on the left of the camp

    Alma and his people departed

    went into the camp of Amalickiah

    sent to the city Gid, while the Lamanites

    into the city by night by means of

    into the camp of the Lamanites

       F. An unconscious enemy is killed:


    Ether VI p 569

    1 Nephi I p 12:

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    Alma XXV p 380:

    Alma XXIX p 402:

    Alma XXIX p 403:

    caused hundreds to sleep in eternal slumbers

    and slew a part of the army of Coriantumr

    smote off his head with his own sword

    he did cause the death of the king

    drunken . . . could have slain them (potential kill)

    slew many and surrounded many others

    did pierce him near the heart . . . he died


    - 67 -

       G. The hero or heroes are pursued by the angry enemy:


    Mosiah X p 202:

    Mosiah XI p 206

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    Alma XXIX p 403:

    fired with indignation they sallied forth

    they sent an army . . . to pursue them

    Lamanites have awakened and do pursue them

    Lamanites have awakened and do should come

    they did pursue Teancum and slew him

       H. The hero is [caught and slain] by the pursuing enemy:

    155-21 & 34:

    Alma XXIX p 404:

    the Sciotans had overtaken Hamko... and Haloon plunged his sword... (he) expired... a spear pierced him ...he... never breathed again

    the Lamanites... did pursue Teancum, and slew him

       I. In two cases the deep sleep of the enemy had the same cause:

    154-31, 155-08:

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    greatly fatigued . . . the fatigues of the day

    because of their much fatigue . . . caused by the labors and the heat of the day

       J. In two cases there were two protagonists who entered the enemy camp:


    Alma XXIII p 370:

    Kelsock and Hamko

    Teancum and his servant

       K. The heroes were living in tents:


    1 Nephi I p 10

    Alma XXIII p 370:

    Alma XXIX p 402:

    Alma XXIX p 403:

    these two friends were sitting in their tent

    took our journey . . . with our tents

    Teancum and his men did pitch their tents

    they did pitch tents in the plains

    (the Nephites encamp for the night in their tents)

       L. In two cases someone is pierced with a [spear] and dies:


    Alma XXIX p 403:

    a spear pierced him in the side

    a javelin... did pierce him near the heart


    - 68 -


    The common vocabulary and phraseology of the nine stories is evident to anyone who takes the time to read them carefully. What is particularly disturbing is the occurrence of several nearly identical word groups in both the Spaulding MS story and the other eight Book of Mormon stories. Word groups such as: into the camp of the; in a profound sleep, fatigues of the day; and a spear/javelin pierced him appear in both texts [where essentially] the same story is being told. The matter is further complicated by the Book of Mormon use of in a profound silence and in a profound sleep in accounts of heroes sneaking past unconscious enemies. That Spaulding would use the term in the exact same way is remarkable! Another highly unusual factor is that neither Spaulding nor the Nephite writers use that term in any other context in [all] the rest of their writing. In fact, the very word profound is used in both texts only in this unique setting!

    [The term profound sleep is not a biblical one, but it is applied to the sleep of Adam by Louis Ginzberg in his Legends of the Jews Vol. I p. 68. This particular word combination may have closer ties to Greco-Roman literature. Alexander Pope provides the exact same in a profound sleep as occurs in the Spaulding and Book of Mormon night-time stratagem stories in his note for his translation of line 578 of the tenth book of Homer's Iliad. This note is printed in Pope's 1717-18 edition, just below his note for line 488, where the words "the fatigues of the former day" may be found. In these notes Pope elucidates the night-time stratagem of Ulysses and Diomed, who sneak past unconscious enemies to kill sleeping Trojan leaders and their comrades, much like Teancum slew kings and Amalickiah Ammoron. Teancum was able to accomplish the former deed because the enemy lie in a deep sleep caused by fatigue from "labors and heat of the day." The night-time stratagem recorded in Alma XXV p 380 was carried out "in a profound silence," and "while the Lamanites were in a deep sleep." The parallel quotation in Spaulding is found on page 155, lines 8 and 9: "They found them lying in a profound sleep -- for the fatigues of the day and revels of the night had brought weariness upon them."]*

    It may seem that I am making too much of the occurrence of a single word. Yet, I believe the question must be asked of how profound came to be in the Nephite record. The word is used only once in the King James edition of The Bible and that occurrence has no seeming connection with its occurrence in Spaulding and in the Book of Mormon.

    If a careful examination of the texts of the Spaulding MS and the Book of Mormon brings forth many examples of this particular kind, we may be forced to admit some unexplained relationship between the two texts.

    * This paragraph was inserted as an erratum in late 1979 copies of this Proposal made after its initial submission to Dr. Holland.


    - 69 -

    The [Oberlin] Solomon Spaulding Manuscript


    Extract from

    "A Preliminary List of Textual Affinities Between
    the Spaulding MS and the Book of Mormon"

    Note 6: Prior to the August 1979 completion of my "A Proposal For a Comparative Study of Textual Affinities in the Solomon Spaulding Manuscript and the Book of Mormon," I had already prepared its precursor in the form an unpublished research paper submitted to the RLDS Historian's Office in April of 1979. This earlier, much more primitive document was entitled, "A List of Textual Affinities Between the Book of Mormon and 'Manuscript Story.'" As this very preliminary tabulation was in many respects an unfinished document, I sent a re-written compilation of more or less the same material to the RLDS Historian's Office in June of 1979. This second effort was entitled, "A Preliminary List of Textual Affinities Between the Spaulding Manuscript and the Book of Mormon."

    Since no RLDS funding was then available to finance my further research into this particular subject, I took the advice of an LDS Institute teacher in Ogden, Utah and re-wrote my June 1979 paper, expanding its contents and formulating that collection of lists and comments into a grant proposal prepared especially for submission to the LDS Church Educational System. While attending the Methodist Theological School in Ohio (Methesco Seminary) in August of 1980, I revised the August 1979 Proposal and eventually submitted it to my Master's Project advisor as "Paper No. 1" in my ten-part set of "Spaulding Research Project Working Papers." Both the 1979 Proposal and the 1980 Working Paper included extracts from my June 1979 "Textual Affinities" listing, the 1980 effort being simply an expansion of the prior extract. I realize that this plethora of variations for my "Textual Affinities" listing may prove confusing to readers. I can only hope that my adding this note of explanation will ameliorate this situation somewhat. For scholarly citations and bibliographic purposes, please refer to the original, hard-copy texts, on file at the RLDS Library-Archives, at Weber State University Library's Special Collections, and with my personal papers in the Special Collections of the University of Utah's Marriott Library.

    Dale R. Broadhurst
    November, 1998


    - 70 -

    In June of 1979 I prepared "A Preliminary List of Textual Affinities Between the Spaulding Manuscript and the Book of Mormon" for certain officials in the RLDS Church. At that time I did not have access to a full set of good photocopies of the Spaulding manuscript, so I made use of the 1885 RLDS published transcript of the text.

    I feel that this list brings to light a great number of affinities in the two texts, many of which really require further investigation [in order for us] to determine their exact relationship one [to] another. In the previous Appendix [pp. 29-68] some examples of textual parallels taken from a very limited portion of Spaulding's work were examined. The extract given here further indicates that those parallels found on MS pages 154 and 155 are not unique, but rather only a small part of a very lengthy list of such occurrences in the two texts.

    In the following listing only the Spaulding word groupings are given: no Book of Mormon cross-referencing has yet been prepared from my original notes on the subject. The examples given are either identical or near identical [word group] occurrences from both texts and are of the "highly unexpected" variety. The page numbers accompanying the quotes are from the 1885 RLDS edition of Spaulding's romance. In a couple of instances the text used is the 1886 LDS edition's, however. In most cases the word groups can be found just as listed in both works, but in a few instances two passages from the Book of Mormon are required to match the quote in its totality. Also, in a few cases the passages in the Book of Mormon which are in parallel with those of the list are not exact word-for-word copies of the Spaulding phraseology, but are rather close approximations.

    - 71 -

    page 11:   near the... bank of the... river
               numbers of those people who
               with the assistance of a lever
    page 12:   the box was taken and
               I found that it contained
               in the arts of war
    page 15:   spread... over the face of the
    page 28:   maintain our... religion
    page 30:   to the land of our nativity
               a narrow strip of
               along the banks of this river
    page 31:   lest we should fall into the hands of
    page 36:   had a plenty of provisions at all seasons
    page 42:   he put forth his hand and
    a perfect knowledge of all things page 43: manage the affairs of page 44: the welfare of the people walk in the road which leads to page 45: returns upon their own heads and page 46: to maintain... rights and priviledges rights of their country
    page 47: all the commandments which have been written page 49: his wife and four sons page 53: place where the army of page 54: an army of thirty thousand men page 56: and... returned in peace to their own the blood of brothers (brethren?) page 60: contentions and wars page 62: the people in every city


    - 72 -

    page 63:   be for the benefit of the
               ordained hugh priest
    page 64:   his... son whose name was
               to ordain... their high priest
    page 65:   bade... adieu
    page 73:   their villages and cities were
    page 74:   timber on top of
               and likewise... storehouse... the reception of
               to defend themselves against
    page 75:   for the space of... years
    page 76:   the eldest daughter of
    page 77:   the darkness of night
    page 94:   when... had received this letter he
    page 96:   the calamities of
    page 97:   blood and carnage
    page 98:   cast up his eyes toward heaven
               hear a thundering voice... from the
    page 101:  the great founder of
    page 103:  in the cause of their country and their God
               at the head of a great multitude
    page 110:  to make... preparations for war
    page 112:  spreading carnage
               the field of battle
    page 114:  be stained with the blood of
    page 116:  determined to conquer or die
               the blood of brothers (brethren?)
    page 118:  the greatest slaughter
               was covered with the bodies
    page 121:  an immense slaughter
               was only the beginning of the war
    page 125:  them... in a profound sleep
    page 126:  had taught them to use stratagem
    page 127:  the narrow passage which led to the


    - 73 -

    page 130:  beheld army marching towards them
    page 132:  blood and carnage
    page 133:  fled to the army of
    page 135:  placed himself at the head of
               broke down the door
    page 136:  listen to the cries of
               surrounded by the walls of
    page 137:   band of murderers
    page 138:  the... was covered with the dead
    page 140:  pursued them with his
               returned in great haste
               great was the joy of the
               had fallen by the sword
    page 141:  he marched with the remainder

    Book of Mormon. Any one of these parallels, taken by itself, appears to be of little consequence; but the larger patterns [formed] by these textual affinities are truly worthy of study.


    - 74 -

    The [Oberlin] Solomon Spaulding Manuscript


    Note 7.: The Textual Comparisons Bibliography which follows was reproduced with essentially the same content in my 1980 revision of this Proposal into my "Spaulding Research Project Working Paper No. 1." The only substantial difference between this Proposal appendix and this same section in the 1980 Working Paper was the addition to the latter of a note which followed the information in item number 07. In this e-text I have reformatted that note as "item 07b." within the main body of the bibliography. To distinguish this addition from the rest of the bibliographic material I have reproduced it in red type.

    For a much expanded revision of this same bibliography see Part I of my 1998 "Sciota Revisited" series of e-texts at the "Spalding Research Project" section of the Spalding Studies web-site.

    Dale R. Broadhurst
    November, 1998

    - 75 -

    Ever since the 1834 appearance of Eber D. Howe's Mormonism Unvailed writers have tried to make comparisons of the writings of Solomon Spaulding with the Book of Mormon. Howe, who had the [Oberlin] Spaulding Manuscript in his possession, did not make a close study of it, but instead presented a series of statements by various people who equated portions of the Book of Mormon with another manuscript of Spaulding's which was probably titled "Manuscript Found." Until after 1884 that same approach was used by the anti-Mormon writers, until the number of statements gathered reached a very high number. Some writers compiled rather detailed lists based upon the conflicting evidence given in all of these statements, but [lists of] supposed affinities were of little value without the proof of the actual manuscript.

    When the [Oberlin] Spaulding manuscript came to light in 1884 the emphasis of the pro-Spaulding [theory] writers shifted to examinations of the long lost work now published and available to all. Actually, such comparisons had already been written, being based upon a summary of the work given in Howe's 1834 book. However, that summary was so short as to be of little value to those who sought to link the Nephite record to Spaulding's fiction.

    Initial examinations of the manuscript added little information. Rice and Fairchild dismissed it as not related to the Book of Mormon and most people interested in the matter accepted their opinions. But within a few years after the find some investigators began to notice numerous similarities between the MS and the Book of Mormon. I will give a brief bibliography of some of the more useful lists compiled to date below. This list is based upon a less than exhaustive review of the literature and is not presented as complete. Additions will be gratefully received by this writer.

    - 76 -

    01. Howe, Eber D.  Mormonism Unvailed, Painesville, Ohio 1834.

    Howe relates the finding (by D. P. Hurlbut) of the Solomon Spaulding MS and gives a brief synopsis of the story, which, according to the residents of Conneaut, Ohio, "bears no resemblance to the 'Manuscript Found.'" Howe's summary served as the only concrete example of the writings of Spaulding until the MS find in 1884 in Hawaii. As such, it was the basis for some of the early comparisons of thematic elements.

    02. Haven, John  "A Cunning Device Detected," Times and Seasons vol. I no. 3 (January 1840) p. 47. (reprinted from the Quincy Whig.

    This report of an interview with Spaulding's widow touches upon the area of similarities between his writings and the Book of Mormon. It is difficult to be certain that the widow is referring to the same manuscript which was found in Hawaii. Her statement that in the two texts "some few of the names are alike" may refer to the similarity of such MS names as [Jesus] and Labanco to Book of Mormon names like [Jesus] and Laban.

    03. Winchester, Benjamin  The Origin of the Spaulding Story, Philadelphia 1840, p. 20.

    Winchester quotes from Howe on the nature of the manuscript and concludes: "Now any one who has read the Book of Mormon, knows that the contents are altogether dissimilar from this description." In this statement Winchester sets the pattern for almost all future LDS comment on the two works; most later writings are only restatements of this thought by the early Mormon author.

    04. Patterson, Robert  "Solomon Spaulding and the Book of Mormon" in History of Washington County, Pennsylvania (Boyd Crumrine, editor) Philadelphia, 1882, pp. 425ff.

    Patterson, though representing an anti-Mormon viewpoint, still remains the earliest writer who attempted to fathom the Book of Mormon origins. While other non-Mormons used the Spaulding theory as a weapon against the [restoration] movement, Patterson appears to have tried very hard to understand and state what he felt to be the truth of the matter. Some of his insights are still worth reading today -- especially his comparison of the Howe summary with the story of the Book of Ether in the Book of Mormon.

    05. Reynolds, George  "Internal Evidences of the Book of Mormon" in The Juvenile Instructor Vol. XVII (1882) pp. 235-238, 262-263.

    This is the first real attempt from the Mormon viewpoint to compare the reported textual elements of the "Manuscript Found" with the Book of Mormon. This theme is expanded in his The Myth of Manuscript Found which was published the next year as the 11th book in the LDS "Faith Promoting Series." Unfortunately the speculation concerning the contents of the "Manuscript Found" has remained only speculation. Unless that particular manuscript ever comes to light, speculation such as [that] presented by Reynolds is of very little practical use.

    06. Kelley, Ed. L. & Braden, Clark  Public Discussion of the Issues Between the R.L.D.S. and the Church of Christ (Disciples), St. Louis, 1884.

    This transcript of a debate held in Kirtland contains a wealth of information on the Spaulding theory from both pro and anti viewpoints. The entire discussion of Proposition #1 is an excellent review of the theory as it stood just before the Hawaii MS find. See especially Braden's 6th Speech and Kelley's 9th Speech for comparisons of the reported "Manuscript Found" with the Book of Mormon. Braden appears to have viewed the [Oberlin] Solomon Spaulding manuscript as a sort of rough draft of the "Manuscript Found," so his remarks apply to both stories at some points in his discussion

    07a. Fairchild, James H.  Manuscript of Solomon Spaulding and the Book of Mormon (a paper read before the Northern Ohio and Western Reserve Historical Society, March 23, 1866 and published in Tract no. 77, Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio.)

    In the first real comparison of the [Oberlin] Spaulding manuscript with the Book of Mormon, Fairchild finds little in common between the two. Though personally involved, Fairchild does not appear to have had an adequate background in the Book of Mormon. Thus, just because he was a man of advanced education and helped in the bringing forth of the lost manuscript he is often credited as having given the definitive statement on the non-relationship of the two works. His remarks are quoted in most major Mormon works on the subject, perhaps without [any understanding] of [just] how limited his knowledge of the Book of Mormonreally was.

    07b. Whitsitt, William H. "Mormonism" in S. M. Jackson's Concise Dictionary of Religious Knowledge, 1891 (A summary of "Sidney Rigdon, the Real Founder of Mormonism")

    Although Dr. Whitsitt wrote extensively on the origin of the Book of Mormon and had a copy of the MS found in Hawaii in his possession, he had very little to say about how little or how much the texts of those two works resembled each other. This writer had nearly completed his massive Sidney Rigdon biography when the Spalding story discovered in Honolulu was announced to the world.

    The few thematic parallels noted by Whitsitt are his attempt to provide documentation for the idea that the Book of Mormon story line was developed from a Spaulding authored Book of Ether. Whitsitt felt he could detect a pattern of literary evolution extending from the Oberlin manuscript's story, through the Jaredite account, and on into the Lehite records. Without having the Oberlin document in hand during most of his investigations, however, Whitsitt did not wite a detailed explanation of his idea.

    08. Whitney, Orson  History of Utah, Salt Lake City, 1892-1904.

    In the third chapter of the first volume of this work Whitney gives a good review of the Spaulding issue. On page 50 he appears to admit a "few" similarities between the [Oberlin] MS and the Book of Mormon, but he does not support any connection between the two works. He does give some interesting side-by-side comparisons of the two texts.

    09. Smith, Joseph F.  "The Manuscript Found" in Improvement Era Vol. 3 no. 4 (February, 1900)

    In the first installment in a three issue article article on the Spaulding theory, LDS President Joseph F. Smith quotes L.L. Rice, saying that the only resemblance between the MS and the Book of Mormon is that they both "give an account of American Indians."

    - 78 -

    10. Schroeder, Theodore A.  The Origin of the Book of Mormon Reexamined . . . Salt Lake City, 1901.)

    Schroeder was the first anti-Mormon to revive the Spaulding theory after the Hawaii find. He appears to have looked at the [Oberlin] MS as a rough draft for the reported "Manuscript Found." On page 4 he makes a remark of how the story resembles that of the Book of Mormon. Such unsupported statements are as vague as Mormon claims that there are no similarities in the two works. However, Schroeder had a considerable effect on later writers and opened up the idea that the [Oberlin] Solomon Spaulding MS might indeed have some connection with the record of the Nephites.

    11. Evans, John H.  One Hundred Years of Mormonism, Salt Lake City, 1905.

    Evans gives considerable space to a discussion of the Spaulding theory in this well accepted older history. It [marks] a turning point in the Mormon view on the subject, in that he says: "there are some general resemblances between this work and the Book of Mormon, both in content and in external details . . ." Evans seems to have noticed both the textual similarities of the two works and the parallels in Joseph Smith's history of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon and Spaulding's account of the bringing forth of his "Roman record." This point is quite important, for the double parallel was not acknowledged by Mormon writers until Evans announced it.

    12. Meyer, Eduard  The Origin and History of the Mormons, Halle, Germany 1912. (available in a 1961 English translation by Rahde and Seaich, Salt Lake City, 1961).

    This European writer listed four parallels between the two works (see p. 26 of the English translation) but all are superficial in and of themselves and two are exaggerations of the actual case. Thus. while Meyer was one of the first to list actual parallels, his work is of limited usefulness.

    13. Roberts, Brigham H.  New Witnesses for God, Vol. II The Book of Mormon Salt Lake City, 1909.

    Roberts makes a statement on page 385 of this work which is worthy of quotation here:
    Composition in writers becomes individualized as distinctly as the looks, or appearance, or character, of separate individuals; and they can no more write in several styles than individuals can impersonate different characters . . . underneath these impersonations is to be seen the real individual; and so with authors. As we have in this (the Spaulding Manuscript) enough of Mr. Spaulding's style to determine its nature; if this manuscript of his was used either as the foundation or the complete work of the Book of Mormon, we should be able to detect Spauldingisms in it; identity of style would be apparent; but these things are entirely absent from every page of the Book of Mormon.


    - 79 -

    Although I do not agree with Roberts' conclusion that there are no Spauldingisms on the Book of Mormon, I feel that he has a good point stated in the rest of his discussion. Though Roberts was a staunch defender of the Book of Mormon on this issue, he did note parallelism in Joseph Smith's History and the Spaulding Manuscript (see 14. below).

    14. Roberts, Brigham H.  "Manuscript of Parallels" (unpublished manuscript with no date, copy in the RLDS Library and Archives).

    This remarkable work is a comparison of the Book of Mormon with Ethan Smith's View of the Hebrews. On page 2 of the parallels listing Roberts makes another statement worth quoting:
    Has your attention ever been called to at least one striking passage in the Solomon Spaulding Book as published by our Church, which suggests something of a parallel to the description given above of this stone box as found by our prophet? It is given by Spaulding in connection with his finding the manuscript of his book . . .
    This quote was discussed by RLDS writer Charles A. Davies in "'View of the Hebrews' and the Book of Mormon" in The Saints' Herald Vol. 109 no. 15 (Aug. 1, 1962) pp. 537ff. Davis thought that this one parallel seen by Roberts was "the only similarity between the Book of Mormon and the Spaulding romance."

    As this unpublished manuscript was written late in Roberts' career, I cannot help but think that he may have had some second thoughts on the possible link of Spaulding to Mormonism, at least in regard to the Joseph Smith account of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon. [I cannot help but] wonder if Roberts may have not left behind other unpublished works investigating a possibility such as this.

    15. Shook, Charles A.  The True Origin of The Book of Mormon, Cincinnati 1914.

    Heavily influenced by Schroeder in his thought on the [Spaulding] theory, Shook was an RLDS author who left the Church and wrote a number of works including this well thought-out volume. Shook was [one of] the first writers who actually sat down and compiled a list of thematic parallels between the Book of Mormon and the Spaulding story. Pages 155 to 165 contain this listing and is "must" reading for anyone investigating the Spaulding theory. Shook's list includes a number of misstatements and a mixing of the Nephite record material and the Joseph Smith History in making a comparison to Spaulding's work. Even so, it was [one of] the first such listings and [it] contains a good core of parallels often quoted by later writers.

    - 80 -

    16. Homans, J. E. (pseudonym: Robert C. Webb)  The Real Mormonism NYC, 1916.

    On pages 423-426 Homans compares the [Oberlin] Solomon Spaulding MS to the Book of Mormon. Like many anti-theory writers, Homans avoids mentioning the parallels in the texts.

    17. Arbaugh, George B.  Revelation in Mormonism Chicago, 1932.

    Arbaugh appears to have drawn upon Shook for his short listing of parallels appearing on pp. 16-18 of this book. Arbaugh does add a few examples to Shook's list and it is worthwhile to read his discussion of the subject.

    18. Bown, M.D.  "One Hundred Similarities Between The Book of Mormon and the Spaulding Manuscript," unpublished manuscript in the Special Collections of the Harold B. Lee Library at Brigham Young University. (1937?)Though little quoted by recent writers, Bown's lengthy listing of textual parallels is a remarkable work of scholarship on the subject. It appears that this was a paper written for some class at BYU in the mid-thirties. Brother Bown's insight into the material he covers is excellent and his list would be required reading by anyone weighing the evidence of the pro and con sides in the Spaulding issue.

    A less significant work is A. Dean Wengreen's "An Analysis of 'One Hundred Similarities Between The Book of Mormon and The Spaulding Manuscript" (unpublished manuscript at BYU, copy in the LDS Church Library). Wengreen points out a few minor errors in Bown's thought but resorts to avoiding the issues raised in that author's work by [voicing] his own testimony that the Book of Mormon has no elements of human origin.

    19. Bales, James D.  "The Book of Mormon and Spaulding Manuscripts" in The Christian Soldier Vol. IV no. 9 (August 14, 1942) p. 5.

    This list of 49 thematic parallels is not so detailed or well thought out as the Bown work and does not appear to rely upon that earlier paper at all. Nevertheless, both authors cover many of the same points. The Bales listing was expanded to 75 "points of similarity" in his 1958 The Book of Mormon? (Rosemead, California). Though in some areas Bales' work adds to Bown's listing, it is not so strong a list. For comments on the Bales effort see Hugh Nibley's "The Comparative Method" in Improvement Era Vol. 62, no. 10 (October 1959) pp. 741, 759.

    20. Hill, Marvin S.  "The Role of Christian Primitivism . . ." (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1968).

    Beginning on page 95 of this work Hill makes a brief mention of some "superficial similarities" in the MS and the Book of Mormon. Unfortunately he seems to have been unaware of the listings under "Spaulding" in the card Catalogs of the [LDS] Church and BYU collections, for he nowhere mentions the works I have listed under items 18. and 19. [above] which are available to any researcher looking into the subject. Hill's otherwise fine discussion of the subject is marred by this major oversight on his part of important source material which he might easily have drawn upon for a more complete review of the issue.

    - 81 -

    21. Davis, Howard A. (with D.R. Scales & W.L. Cowdrey)  Who Really Wrote the Book of Mormon> Santa Ana, Calif. 1977

    On pages 247-253 these authors discuss parallels between the Spaulding MS and the Book of Mormon and promise further such examples in a "forthcoming book." These authors also appear to be unaware of previous work done on the subject. Their list is weak and short and does little to support their [stated] point of view.

    22. Bush, Lester E.  "The Spalding Theory Then and Now" in Dialogue Vol. X no. 4 (Autumn 1977) pp. 40ff.

    Of all the Mormon writings on the subject, Lester Bush;s article is the most detailed, open, and [seemingly] honest effort I have yet come across. While he tends to support the anti-Spaulding [theory] view, he makes such statements as: ". . . there are unmistakable parallels in Spalding's introduction and Joseph Smith's early experiences." (p. 42).

    On page 56 Bush carefully selects a few parallels between the Book of Mormon and the Spaulding MS and discusses them in a footnote. One gets the feeling that Bush is walking a tightrope: admitting a few parallels but not really confronting the Bown and Bales lists and giving any real explanation [for] these numerous thematic elements which do occur in both the Spaulding manuscript and the Book of Mormon.

    23. Broadhurst, Dale R.  "A Preliminary List of Textual Affinities Between the Spaulding Manuscript and The Book of Mormon" (unpublished 50 page report on thematic and vocabulary affinities) June 1979.

    Though there have been a number of lists dealing with the structural or thematic elements which are similar in the two texts, this was the first listing of identical and near identical phraseology in the MS and the Book of Mormon. Also contained in the paper are some thematic similarities not noticed by previous writers. This preliminary report was not intended for publication and falls far short of even beginning to list the hundreds of [instances] of identical phraseology [in these two works.]

    - 82 -

    24. Broadhurst, Dale R. "The Coming Forth of the Book of Mormon in Relation to Solomon Spaulding's Manuscript Story" (unpublished research paper, August, 1979).

    Previous listings and discussions of parallels usually ignored the fact that there are two different Mormon writings which have very high instances of "Spauldingisms" in their texts. The better known example is the Book of Mormon but Joseph Smith's "History" as published in the Times and Seasons can be considered just as good of an example in the account of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon. Evans, Roberts and Bush all noticed these strange similarities and commented on them.

    What is quite remarkable is that Smith was no doubt aware of the Howe and Hurlbut charges and should have been particularly careful to refrain from mixing any "fiction" into his account of finding the plates for the Nephite record. Even so, the account has a distinct "Spauldingish" ring to it, both in structure and in phraseology. The Smith account and the Spaulding account are so close to each other that they read like products of the same pen.

    This paper examines the two accounts in detail, noting identical word groups and identical structure in a number of places [in the texts.]

    No doubt there are other [works] I have missed in the preparation of this bibliography. In at least one instance I have come across letters which contain [comparison] listings and there is a possibility of finding similar material in old journals or unpublished manuscripts.

    It has been pointed more than once that lists of textual similarities do not prove any connection between two literary works. Identical vocabulary and identical structure do not prove connections either. Even if it could be shown that Spaulding wrote a work almost identical to the Book of Mormon [that by itself] would not be necessary and sufficient proof that Smith copied from him. If such an example were to be had, I am almost certain that it would be explained away as Spaulding's somehow "tapping into" the truth of the Nephites.

    Lists prove nothing but [their compilation does help] lay the groundwork for further investigation. The lists show that there are unusual similarities in the two works. The day is fast approaching when someone will have to look beyond the textual aspect and start looking for "hard evidence" of a link between Spaulding and the writings of the early restoration. It is just possible that something of that nature might surface with proper research and we should be ready for such a development if it comes.

    back to top of page

    Broadhurst Papers:   <->   02   03   04   08   09   10   11   12   13   14   15   16

    Return to:   Spalding Studies Research  |    SRP Section  |    DRB Papers Index  |    "Home"
    Special Collections  |  Bookshelf  |  Mormon Classics  |  Newspapers  |  History Vault

    Last Revised: Oct. 16, 2005